(EDGAR Online via COMTEX) -- Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should review the section titled "Risk factors" in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described below.
We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on harnessing the body's innate biology to repair or reverse damage caused by a broad range of degenerative diseases and an industry leader in the science and development of medicines for inner-ear cellular regeneration and hearing restoration. Our initial focus is on advancing our lead product candidate, FX-322, through clinical studies with the goal of developing and commercializing a medicine to help millions of patients with the most common form of hearing loss and build upon the potential of regenerative therapeutics for hearing.
Our initial therapeutic focus is sensorineural hearing loss, or SNHL, which is the most prevalent type of hearing loss. We are developing FX-322 to treat the underlying cause of SNHL, which is the loss of hair cells. FX-322 is designed to regenerate hair cells through the activation of progenitor cells already present in the ear. In our Phase 1/2 clinical trial evaluating FX-322 in 23 patients with stable SNHL, we observed a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in key measures of hearing loss, including word recognition, and clarity of sounds, and FX-322 was observed to be well-tolerated. We commenced dosing of a Phase 2a clinical trial of FX-322 in patients with SNHL in October 2019. While we continue to enroll and dose patients in the trial and have recently activated new clinical trial sites, we continue to observe an impact on the Phase 2a clinical trial from the COVID-19 pandemic as a number of clinical trial sites have informed us that they have temporarily halted enrollment in the trial. We expect that the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic may further result in other clinical trial sites being similarly affected for an unknown period of time, slowing or temporarily halting patient enrollment and potentially impacting patient retention. However, principal investigators have reported that patients currently enrolled in the clinical trial have remained enrolled and that sites continue to be able to follow the study protocol. We are continuing to evaluate the anticipated timing for reporting of top-line data from the Phase 2a clinical trial.
We also recently announced top-line data from an exploratory clinical study in Germany that we believe demonstrates that FX-322 effectively reached the cochlea at levels predicted, based on computer models, to be therapeutically active. Results from the exploratory study, conducted in Germany, showed measurable concentrations of FX-322 in every patient and that anatomical factors did not prevent FX-322 from reaching the cochlea. The study results were based on analyzing samples of cochlear fluid, known as perilymph, taken intraoperatively from patients undergoing cochlear implant surgery. A total of seven patients received a single intratympanic injection of FX-322, enabling researchers to directly measure the level of FX-322 in perilymph, which is not otherwise feasible in inner-ear studies because accessing the cochlea involves an invasive surgical procedure. Study patients were followed for approximately 30 days after the procedure and no serious treatment related adverse events were observed. We intend to present the results from this study at an upcoming medical conference.
We are also working to identify a product candidate for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, or MS. This program focuses on activating progenitor cells in the central nervous system to repair the myelin sheath that protects nerves and may have the potential to reverse damage done by the disease. We intend to submit an investigational new drug application or, IND, to the U.S. Federal Drug Administration, or the FDA, for our MS product candidate in the second half of 2021.
Our offices are located in states that are currently under mandated lock down orders and/or stay at home advisories related to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, in Massachusetts, biotechnology companies such as ours have been deemed essential and are exempted from such orders. At present, the majority of our employees are working from home, while certain necessary laboratory employees have periodically worked in the lab to ensure that work on essential experiments have continued. Our Farmington, CT research site, co-located with the University of Connecticut, has paused activity and this site is expected to re-open when non-essential State offices are permitted to do so. Thus, we have transitioned key experiments to the Company's offices in Woburn, MA and third parties and contract research organizations have been engaged to advance certain projects.
The COVID-19 pandemic, and actions taken to mitigate it, have had and are expected to continue to have an adverse impact on the economies and financial markets of many countries, including the geographical area in which the Company operates, which could adversely impact our ability to raise additional capital when needed or on acceptable terms, if at all. In addition, COVID-19 may cause significant disruptions in the Company's business or operations, as well as the business and operations of the Company's CMOs, CROs and other third parties with whom the Company conducts business. The COVID-19 pandemic may also adversely impact the Company's clinical trials, which could impede, delay, limit or prevent the clinical development of our product candidates and ultimately lead to the delay or denial of regulatory approval of our product candidates, which would materially adversely affect our business and operations, including the Company's ability to generate revenue.
In October 2019, we completed the initial public offering of our common stock, or the IPO. In the IPO, we issued and sold 6,325,000 shares of our common stock at a price to the public of $14.00 per share, inclusive of the underwriters' exercise in part of their over-allotment option. We received approximately $79.7 million in net proceeds, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other offering expenses. In July 2019, we closed our Series C convertible preferred stock financing in which we issued and sold 39,492,960 shares of our Series C convertible preferred stock for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $61.7 million. In July 2019, we also entered into a License and Collaboration Agreement, or the Astellas Agreement, with Astellas Pharma Inc., or Astellas, pursuant to which Astellas paid us an upfront payment of $80.0 million.
Since our formation in 2014, we have devoted substantially all our resources to developing our PCA platform, conducting research and development activities, including product candidate development, recruiting skilled personnel, establishing our intellectual property portfolio, and providing general and administrative support for these operations. We have financed our operations primarily through proceeds from the sale of convertible notes and of our convertible preferred stock, the IPO and the Astellas Agreement. To date, we have raised approximately $316.5 million through a combination of convertible notes, convertible preferred stock financings, the upfront payment under the Astellas Agreement, grants and the IPO. Since our formation, we have incurred significant operating losses and have not generated any revenue from the sale of products. Our ability to generate any product revenue or product revenue sufficient to achieve profitability will depend on the successful development and eventual commercialization of one or more of our product candidates. Our net losses were $4.9 million, $18.7 million and $19.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020, and the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. As of March 31, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $73.8 million. We expect our operating expenses to increase substantially in connection with the expansion of our product development programs and capabilities. In addition, we expect to continue to incur significant additional costs associated with operating as a public company. We will not generate revenue from product sales unless and until we successfully complete clinical development, obtain regulatory approval for, and successfully commercialize our product candidates, or until our collaborators do so, which could result in milestone payments or royalties to us. If we obtain regulatory approval for any of our product candidates, we expect to incur significant expenses related to developing our commercialization capability to support product sales, marketing and distribution.
As a result of these anticipated expenditures, we will need additional financing to support our continuing operations. Until such time as we can generate significant revenue from product sales, if ever, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of public or private equity or debt financings and other sources, which may include current and new collaborations with third parties. Adequate additional financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. Our inability to raise capital as and when needed would have a negative impact on our financial condition and our ability to pursue our business strategy. We cannot be sure that we will ever generate sufficient revenue to achieve profitability. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with the development of therapeutics, we are unable to predict the timing or amount of increased expenses or when or if we will be able to achieve or maintain profitability. Even if we can generate revenue from product sales, we may not become profitable. If we fail to become profitable or are unable to sustain profitability on a continuing basis, then we may be required to raise additional capital on terms that are unfavorable to us or we may be unable to continue our operations at planned levels and be forced to reduce or terminate our operations.
License and collaboration agreements
Astellas Pharma Inc.
In July 2019, we entered into the Astellas Agreement with Astellas, under which we granted Astellas an exclusive, royalty-bearing, sub-licensable, nontransferable license to certain patent rights to research, develop, manufacture, have manufactured, use, seek, and secure regulatory approval for, commercialize, offer for sale, sell, have sold and import, and otherwise exploit licensed products containing both a GSK-3 inhibitor and an HDAC inhibitor, or the Astellas licensed products, including our product candidate FX-322, outside of the United States. We and Astellas have agreed to jointly
develop the Astellas licensed products, including carrying out joint studies. Each party has agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to carry out development activities assigned to it under an agreed-upon development plan. Astellas has agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to obtain regulatory approval for at least one Astellas licensed product in SNHL and in age-related hearing loss, in each case in one major Asian country and one major European country. We have agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to obtain regulatory approval for at least one Astellas licensed product in the United States. Astellas has the sole right to commercialize the Astellas licensed products outside of the United States and we have the sole right to commercialize the Astellas licensed products in the United States. Astellas has agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to commercialize Astellas licensed products in a major Asian country and a major European country following receipt of regulatory approval in such countries.
As consideration for the licensed rights under the Astellas Agreement, Astellas paid us an upfront payment of $80.0 million in July 2019 and has agreed to pay potential development milestones up to $230.0 million. Specifically, we would receive development milestone payments of $65.0 million and $25.0 million upon the first dosing of a patient in Phase 2b clinical trial for SNHL in Europe and Asia, respectively and $100.0 million and $40.0 million upon the first dosing of a patient in a Phase 3 clinical for SNHL in Europe and Asia, respectively. If the Astellas Licensed Products are successfully commercialized, we would be eligible for up to $315.0 million in potential commercial milestone payments and tiered royalties at rates ranging from low to mid-teen percentages. The parties shall share equally all out-of-pocket costs and joint study costs for all the joint activities conducted pursuant to the development plans or the joint manufacturing plan. Pursuant to our Exclusive Patent License Agreement, or the MIT License, with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, we are required to pay MIT a royalty on sublicense revenues. A royalty of $16.0 million related to the $80.0 million upfront payment received from Astellas was expensed in the quarter ended September 30, 2019 and paid in November 2019.The $80.0 million upfront payment received from Astellas in July 2019 has been recorded as deferred revenue and is being recognized as revenue, using the input method, over the period in which we will be conducting Phase 2a clinical trials for FX-322. We have recognized $7.3 million of the $80.0 million as revenue in the three months ended March 31, 2020 and $36.2 million of the 80.0 million since entering into the Astellas Agreement.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
In December 2016, we entered into the MIT License, with MIT under which we received an exclusive, worldwide, royalty-bearing license to certain patent rights to develop, make, have made, use, sell, offer to sell, lease, and import products, or the MIT licensed products, and to develop and perform processes, or the MIT licensed processes, which incorporate the licensed technology for the treatment of disease, including but not limited to the prevention and remediation of hearing loss. We are required to use diligent efforts to develop and commercialize the MIT licensed products or processes, and to make such products or processes reasonably available to the public. We are also subject to certain development obligations with regards to a first MIT licensed product. We have satisfied certain obligations related to preclinical studies and the filing of an IND for a first MIT licensed product with our development activities related to FX-322. Our future development obligations are: (i) to commence a Phase II clinical trial for such product within two years of the IND filing for such product, (ii) to commence a Phase III clinical trial for such product within five years of the IND filing for such product, (iii) to file a New Drug Application, or NDA, or equivalent with the FDA or comparable European regulatory agency for such product within nine years of the IND filing for such product, and (iv) to make a first commercial sale of such product within 11 years of the IND filing for such product. We also have certain development obligations with regards to a second MIT licensed product.
Upon entering into the MIT License, we paid a $50 thousand license fee payment and issued shares of our common stock equal to 5% of our then-outstanding capital stock to MIT. We are required to pay certain annual license maintenance fees ranging from $30 thousand to $0.1 million per year prior to first commercial sale of a MIT licensed product and an annual license maintenance fee of $0.2 million every year afterwards, which may be credited to running royalties during the same calendar year, if any. We are also required to make potential milestone payments in an aggregate amount of up to $2.9 million on each MIT licensed product or process. In addition, we agreed to pay a low single-digit royalty on the MIT licensed products and processes and a low-twenties royalty on sub-license revenues. In the year ended December 31, 2019, we paid MIT a $16.0 million royalty on the upfront license fee received from Astellas.
Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
In February 2019, we entered into an Non-Exclusive Patent License Agreement, or the MEEI License, with the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, or MEEI, under which we received a non-exclusive, non-sub-licensable, worldwide, royalty-bearing license to certain patent rights to develop, make, have made, use, sell, offer to sell, lease, and import products, and to develop and perform processes that incorporate the licensed technology for the treatment or prevention of hearing loss, or the MEEI licensed products. We are obligated to use diligent efforts to develop and commercialize the MEEI licensed products. We are also subject to milestone timeline obligations to dose a first patient in a Phase II trial by December 31, 2020 and to dose a first patient in a Phase III trial by December 31, 2024.
Upon entering into the MEEI License, we made a $20 thousand license fee payment. We are obligated to pay certain annual license maintenance fees between $5 thousand and $7.5 thousand per each MEEI patent family case number included in the licensed MEEI patent rights prior to first commercial sale of an MEEI licensed product. We are also obligated to pay a minimum annual royalty payment of $15 thousand per each MEEI patent family case number included in the licensed MEEI patent rights after first commercial sale of an MEEI licensed product. We are also obligated to make milestone payments up to $350 thousand on each product or process that incorporates the licensed patent rights. In addition, we have agreed to pay a low single-digit royalty on products and processes that incorporate the licensed patent rights.
The Scripps Research Institute (California Institute for Biomedical Research)
In September 2018, we entered into a license agreement, or the CALIBR License, with the California Institute for Biomedical Research, or CALIBR, a division of Scripps, under which we received an exclusive, worldwide, royalty-bearing license to certain patent rights to make, have made, use, sell, offer to sell, and import products, or the CALIBR licensed products, which incorporate licensed technology for the treatment of MS. We have agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop, manufacture, and sell at least one CALIBR licensed product. We are also subject to certain milestone timeline obligations to: (i) submit an IND (or equivalent) for a CALIBR licensed product by the 30th month after the effective date of the CALIBR License, (ii) initiate a Phase II clinical trial (or equivalent) for a CALIBR licensed product by the fourth anniversary of the effective date of the CALIBR License, and (iii) initiate a Phase III clinical trial (or equivalent) for a CALIBR licensed product by the sixth anniversary of the effective date of the CALIBR License.
Upon entering into the CALIBR License, we made a $1.0 million license fee payment, and are required to make milestone payments in an aggregate amount of up to $26.0 million for each category of CALIBR licensed products. Category 1 is any CALIBR licensed products containing a compound that modulates any muscarinic receptor, and Category 2 is any CALIBR licensed products not included in Category 1 that could differentiate oligodendrocyte precursor cells from in vitro studies and/or are active in animal models relevant to MS. We are also required to pay a mid-single-digit royalty on CALIBR licensed products and a royalty on sub-license revenues ranging from a low-teen percentage to 50%.
The Scripps Research Institute
In September 2018, we entered into a Research Funding and Option Agreement, or the Scripps option agreement, with Scripps, under which we were granted an exclusive option to acquire an exclusive, sublicensable, worldwide license under certain intellectual property related to the treatment of MS. As consideration for the Scripps option agreement, we are required to make funding payments totaling $0.7 million to Scripps to support its research activities. Scripps has agreed to use reasonable efforts to perform the research program pursuant to the Scripps option agreement.
The Scripps option agreement had a one-year term and was renewed for a second year by mutual written agreement. We have the right to terminate by giving 90 days' advance notice. Scripps has the right to terminate in the event of nonpayment by us that remains uncured for 10 days. Each party has the right to terminate in the event of the other party's material breach that remains uncured for 60 days or if the other party becomes bankrupt.
Cambridge Enterprise Limited
In December 2019, we entered into an Exclusive Patent License Agreement, or the Cambridge License, with Cambridge, under which we received an exclusive, worldwide, royalty-bearing license to certain patent rights to make, have made, use, sell, offer to sell, and import products, or the Cambridge licensed products, which incorporate licensed technology for the treatment of demyelinating diseases. We also have the right to grant sublicenses under the Cambridge License. Cambridge reserves the right to use for itself (as well as the investors and the funder) and the right to grant nonexclusive licenses to other academic institutions for any academic publication, research and teaching and clinical patient care.
We have agreed to use diligent and good faith efforts to develop and commercially exploit at least one Cambridge licensed product. Upon entering into the Cambridge License, we made a $50 thousand license fee payment. We are obligated to pay an annual license fee of $50 thousand. We are also obligated to make milestone payments up to $10.5 million on each Cambridge licensed product. In addition, we have agreed to pay a low single-digit royalty on products that incorporate the licensed patent rights, subject to offset in certain circumstances.
The Cambridge License continues in effect on a country-by-country basis until the expiration or revocation, without right of further appeal, of all licensed issued patents and filed patent applications, unless terminated earlier. We have the right to terminate for any reason upon 90 days' prior written notice. Each party has the right to terminate immediately if the other party ceases to carry on its business. Either party may also terminate the Cambridge License for material breach if such breach remains uncured for 30 days. Cambridge may also terminate the Cambridge License if we fail to diligently develop and commercially exploit at least one Cambridge licensed product or we or our affiliates or sub-licensees commence any action against Cambridge to declare or render any claim of the licensed patent rights invalid, unpatentable, unenforceable, or not infringed.
Components of our results of operations
To date, we have not generated any revenue from product sales and do not expect to generate any revenue from product sales in the foreseeable future. In July 2019, we entered into the Astellas Agreement and received an upfront license fee payment of $80.0 million. In accordance with ASC 606, we are recognizing the $80.0 million as revenue over the period that research and development services and the Phase 2a clinical study for FX-322 are being provided using the input method. For the purpose of revenue recognition, this is the period from execution of the Astellas Agreement to, based on management's best estimate, the estimated completion date of the Phase 2a clinical study. Revenue of $16.0 million equal to the royalty expense under the MIT License was recognized as revenue in the year ended December 31, 2019. The remaining $64.0 million is being recognized as revenue using the input method over the period that research and development services and the Phase 2a clinical study for FX-322 are being performed. In the three months ended March 31, 2020 and since entering into the Astellas Agreement, we recognized $7.3 million and $36.2 million, respectively, of the $80.0 million upfront fee as revenue.
Research and development expenses
Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for our research activities, including our discovery efforts and for the development of our product candidate, FX-322. These include the following:
salaries, benefits and other related costs, including stock-based compensation expense, for personnel engaged in research and development functions;
expenses incurred under agreements with third parties, including contract research organizations, or CROs, and other third parties that conduct preclinical research and development activities and clinical trials on our behalf;
costs to manufacture our clinical trial material for use in our preclinical studies and clinical trials;
costs of outside consultants, including their fees and related travel expenses;
costs of laboratory supplies and acquiring, developing and manufacturing preclinical study and clinical trial materials;
option and license payments made to third parties, including MIT, Scripps, MEEI and Cambridge, for intellectual property used in research and development activities; and
facility-related expenses, which include direct depreciation costs and expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities and other operating costs if specifically, identifiable to research activities.
We expense research and development costs as incurred.
We track external research and development costs, including the cost of services, outsourced research and development, clinical trials, contract manufacturing, laboratory equipment and maintenance, and certain other development costs, by product candidate when the costs are specifically identifiable to a product candidate. Internal and external costs associated with infrastructure resources, other research and development costs, facility-related costs, and depreciation and amortization that are not identifiable to a specific product candidate are included in the platform development, early-stage research, and unallocated expenses category in the table below.
The following table summarizes our research and development expenses by product candidate or development program for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019:
Three Months Ended March 31, 2020 2019 Direct research and development expenses by product candidate: FX-322 external development costs $ 1,023 $ 824 Platform development, early-stage research and unallocated expenses: Employee-related costs 3,845 1,439 Laboratory supplies 50 96 Outsourced research and development 846 580 Facility-related costs 251 198 Depreciation and amortization 118 78 Other research and development costs 537 231 Total research and development expenses $ 6,670 $ 3,446
We expect that our research and development expenses will continue to increase substantially for the foreseeable future as we complete our Phase 2a clinical trial and initiate additional clinical trials for FX-322 and continue to discover and develop additional product candidates. Product candidates in later stages of clinical development generally have higher development costs than . . .
May 14, 2020
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