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The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto and other financial information included elsewhere in this report. For additional context with which to understand our financial condition and results of operations, see the management's discussion and analysis included in our Form 10-K, filed with the SEC on March 9, 2022 as well as the financial statements and related notes contained therein.

As used in the discussion below, "we," "our," and "us" refers to Lipocine.

Forward-Looking Statements

This section and other parts of this report contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and

Overview of Our Business

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on neuroendocrine and metabolic disorders using our proprietary oral drug delivery technology. Our proprietary delivery technologies are designed to improve patient compliance and safety through orally available treatment options. Our primary development programs are based on oral delivery solutions for poorly bioavailable drugs. We have a portfolio of differentiated innovative product candidates that target high unmet needs for neurological and psychiatric CNS disorders, liver diseases, and hormone supplementation for men and women.

We entered into a license agreement for the development and commercialization our product candidate, TLANDO(R), an oral testosterone replacement therapy ("TRT") comprised of testosterone undecanoate ("TU"). TLANDO is a registered trademark assigned to Antares. On October 14, 2021, we entered into a license agreement (the "Antares License Agreement") with Antares Pharma, Inc. ("Antares" or our "Licensee"), pursuant to which we granted to Antares an exclusive, royalty-bearing, sublicensable right and license to develop and commercialize, upon final approval of TLANDO from the United States Food and Drug Administration ("FDA"), the TLANDO product for TRT in the U.S. Any FDA required post-marketing studies will also be the responsibility of our licensee, Antares. On March 28, 2022, Antares received approval from the FDA for TLANDO as a TRT in adult males for conditions associated with a deficiency of endogenous testosterone, also known as hypogonadism.

Additional pipeline candidates include: LPCN 1148 comprising a novel prodrug of testosterone, testosterone laurate ("TL"), for the management of decompensated cirrhosis; LPCN 1144, an oral prodrug of androgen receptor modulator for the treatment of non-cirrhotic non-alcoholic steatohepatitis ("NASH") which has completed phase 2 testing; LPCN 1111 (TLANDO(R) XR), a next generation oral TRT product comprised of testosterone tridecanoate ("TT") with the potential for once daily dosing which has completed Phase 2 testing; ; LPCN 1107, potentially the first oral hydroxy progesterone caproate ("HPC") product indicated for the prevention of recurrent preterm birth ("PTB"), which has completed a dose finding clinical study in pregnant women and has been granted orphan drug designation by the FDA; and neuroactive steroids (NAS) including LPCN 1154 for postpartum depression (PPD) and LPCN 2101 for epilepsy.

The following chart summarizes the status of our product candidate development programs:

[[Image Removed]]

To date, we have funded our operations primarily through the sale of equity securities, debt and convertible debt and through up-front payments, research funding and royalty and milestone payments from our license and collaboration arrangements. We have not generated any revenues from product sales and we do not expect to generate revenue other than TLANDO royalties and license fees from product sales by Antares unless and until we obtain regulatory approval of our product candidates.

We have incurred losses in most years since our inception. As of March 31, 2022, we had an accumulated deficit of $176.2 million. Income and losses fluctuate year to year, primarily depending on the nature and timing of research and development occurring on our product candidates. Our net loss was $3.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022, compared to $3.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021. Substantially all of our operating losses resulted from expenses incurred in connection with our product candidate development programs, our research activities and general and administrative costs associated with our operations.

We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses for the foreseeable future as we:

? conduct further development of our other product candidates, including LPCN

        1148, LPCN 1144, LPCN 1111, LPCN 1107, LPCN 1154 and LPCN 2101;

? continue our research efforts;

? research new products or new uses for our existing products;

? maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio; and

? provide general and administrative support for our operations.

To fund future long-term operations, including the potential commercialization of any of our product candidates, we will need to raise additional capital. The amount and timing of future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including capital market conditions, the commercial success of TLANDO, regulatory requirements related to our other product development programs, the timing and results of our ongoing development efforts, the potential expansion of our current development programs, potential new development programs, our ability to license our products to third parties, the pursuit of various potential commercial activities and strategies associated with our development programs and related general and administrative support. We anticipate that we will seek to fund our operations through public or private equity or debt financings or other sources, such as potential license, partnering and collaboration agreements. We cannot be certain that anticipated additional financing will be available to us on favorable terms, in amounts sufficient to fund our operations, or at all. Although we have previously been successful in obtaining financing through public and private equity securities offerings and our license and collaboration agreements, there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so in the future.

Corporate Strategy

Our goal is to become a leading biopharmaceutical company focused on applying our proprietary drug delivery technology for the development of pharmaceutical products focusing on neuroendocrine and metabolic disorders. The key components of our strategy are to:

Build a diversified multi-asset pipeline of novel therapies. We intend to employ a value-driven strategy based on our proprietary technology platform to identify and develop product candidates for neuroendocrine and metabolic disorders including Central Nervous System (CNS) disorders and end stage diseases such as decompensated cirrhosis. We intend to focus on product candidates that we believe are differentiated, have attractive profiles, and address a clear unmet medical need that we can advance quickly and efficiently into late-stage development.

Advance LPCN 1148, a unique prodrug of androgen receptor agonist to manage end stage (decompensated) liver cirrhosis disease. We believe LPCN 1148, a novel prodrug of testosterone, could address a significant unmet medical need in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis accompanied with muscle disorder such as secondary sarcopenia. Sarcopenia in male cirrhotic patients is known to be independently associated with poor outcomes including quality of life, increased decompensation events such as hepatic encephalopathy, increased hospital admissions, and increased mortality rate. We believe LPCN 1148 may be eligible for an orphan drug designation. Enrollment in a multi-center placebo-controlled phase 2 trial is currently ongoing.

Support our licensee in commercialization of our licensed oral TRT option. We believe the TRT market needs a differentiated, convenient oral option. We have exclusively licensed rights to TLANDO to Antares for commercialization of TLANDO in the US. We plan to support our licensee's efforts to effectively enable the availability of TLANDO to patients in a timely manner, in addition to receiving milestone and royalty payments associated with TLANDO commercialization as agreed to in the Antares License Agreement.

Develop partnership(s) to continue the advancement of pipeline assets. We continuously strive to prioritize our resources in seeking co-development partnerships of our pipeline assets. We currently plan to explore partnering of LPCN 1144, our candidate for treatment of non-cirrhotic NASH, LPCN 1107, our candidate for prevention of pre-term birth, and LPCN 1111, a once-a-day therapy candidate for TRT.

Our Product Candidates

Our pipeline of clinical candidates including LPCN 1148, an androgen therapy for the management of cirrhosis, LPCN 1144, an oral androgen therapy for the treatment of non-cirrhotic NASH, LPCN 1111, a next-generation potential once daily oral TRT, LPCN 1107, an oral therapy for the prevention of PTB, and NAS including LPCN 1154 for postpartum depression (PPD) and LPCN 2101 for epilepsy. We will continue to explore other product candidates targeting indications with a significant unmet need.

Our products are based on our proprietary Lip'ral drug delivery technology platform. Lip'ral based TLANDO was approved in March 2022. Lip'ral technology is a patented technology based on lipidic compositions which form an optimal dispersed phase in the gastrointestinal environment for improved absorption of insoluble drugs. The drug loaded dispersed phase presents the solubilized drug efficiently at the absorption site (gastrointestinal tract membrane) thus improving the absorption process and making the drug less dependent on physiological variables such as dilution, gastro-intestinal pH, and food effects for absorption. Lip'ral based formulation enables improved solubilization and higher drug-loading capacity, which can lead to improved bioavailability, reduced dose, faster and more consistent absorption, reduced variability, reduced sensitivity to food effects, improved patient compliance, and targeted lymphatic delivery where appropriate.

Our Development Pipeline

LPCN 1148: Oral Product Candidate for the Management of Decompensated Cirrhosis

We are currently evaluating LPCN 1148 comprising testosterone laurate (TL) for the management of decompensated cirrhosis. We believe LPCN 1148 targets unmet needs for cirrhosis subjects including improvement in the quality of life of patients while on the liver transplant waiting list, prevention or reduction in the occurrence of new decompensation events, and improvement in post liver transplant survival, including outcomes and costs.

We are currently conducting a Phase 2 POC study (NCT04874350) in male cirrhotic subjects to evaluate the therapeutic potential of LPCN 1148 for the management of sarcopenia. The ongoing Phase 2 POC study is a prospective, multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled study in male sarcopenic cirrhotic patients. Subjects will be randomized 1:1 to one of two arms. The treatment arm is an oral dose of LPCN 1148, and the second arm is a matching placebo. The primary endpoint is change in skeletal muscle index at week 24 with key secondary endpoints including change in liver frailty index, rates of breakthrough hepatic encephalopathy, and number of waitlist events, including all-cause mortality. Total treatment is expected to be 52 weeks. We currently expect enrollment in the Phase 2 study to be complete by the end of the third quarter of 2022 and top-line 24-week results by the end of the first quarter of 2023.

Possible outcomes of interest from the Phase 2 study include clinical outcomes such as overall survival and new decompensation events (including hepatic encephalopathy and/or ascites occurrences), rates of survival to transplant, rates of hospitalizations, infections, etc., muscle changes such as muscle mass, body composition, myosteatosis (muscle fat), functional capacity changes such as liver frailty index (LFI), patient reported outcomes (PROs), and biochemical markers including hematocrit for anemia status, albumin, creatinine/kidney function, etc.

Disease Overview - Cirrhosis

There are over 2 million cases of cirrhosis worldwide, with over 500,000 people living with decompensated cirrhosis in the U.S. and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most rapidly increasing indication for liver transplant. 62% of those on the liver transplant ("LT") waitlist are male. The economic burden (approximately $812,500/transplant) is high and continues to increase. Each year about half of the approximately 17,000 people in U.S. on the LT waitlist undergo transplant, while nearly 3,000 patients either die or are removed from the list because they were "too sick to transplant."

Liver cirrhosis is defined as the histological development of regenerative nodules surrounded by fibrous bands. Cirrhotic patients typically have a years-long silent, asymptomatic phase (compensated cirrhosis) until decreasing liver function and increasing portal pressure move the patient into the symptomatic phase (decompensated cirrhosis). Transition to decompensated cirrhosis is marked by clinical events including ascites, encephalopathy, jaundice, and/or variceal hemorrhage. Decompensated subjects survive on average less than 2 years. Common causes of liver cirrhosis include alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), chronic hepatitis B and C, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and cryptogenic.

Common complications in cirrhotic patients may include: compromised liver function, portal hypertension, varices in GI tract with internal bleeding, edema, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, compromised immunity with post-transplant acute rejection risk, high sodium levels, increased bilirubin, low albumin level, insulin resistance with impaired peripheral uptake of glucose, depression, accelerated muscle disorder in the form of sarcopenia, myosteotosis, and frailty with compromised energetics, bone diseases (e.g., osteoporosis), high alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cachexia, malnutrition, weight loss (>5%), symptoms of hypogonadism such as abnormal hair distribution, anemia, sexual dysfunction, testicular atrophy, muscle wasting, fatigue, osteoporosis, gynecomastia, inflammation with elevated cytokines, and infection risk leading to hospital admissions and possibly death.

Hepatic encephalopathy ("HE"), a significant decompensation event in patient with cirrhosis, is a brain dysfunction caused by liver insufficiency and/or portal systemic shunting. Because the damaged liver cannot function normally (as in cirrhosis), neurotoxins such as ammonia are inadequately removed from systemic circulation and travel to the brain, where they affect neurotransmission. This can cause episodes of HE, which may present as alterations in consciousness, cognition, and behavior that range from minimal to severe. Overt HE occurs in 30% to 40% of patients with cirrhosis at some point during the clinical course of their disease. As the burden of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis is increasing, the frequency of HE is also increasing.

Muscle Disorders and Cirrhosis

Muscle disorders secondary to cirrhosis could be manifested in the form of several inter-related characteristics such as sarcopenia, myosteotosis, and frailty impacting muscle mass, strength, quality, and function. Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress have also been reported to accelerate muscle wasting. Muscle also plays a significant compensatory role in detoxifying ammonia, a neurotoxin and a myotoxin implicated in precipitation of HE in cirrhosis patients.

Sarcopenia and associated frailty affect up to 70% of cirrhotic men and are a leading cause of patients being removed from the LT wait list. Due to the lack of available organs and aging demographics of those on the waitlist, patients that do receive a transplant are "increasingly being described as frail". The presence of sarcopenia or frailty is associated with increased risk of hospitalization and hepatic decompensation, a two-fold increase in waitlist mortality, poor post-transplant outcomes, and reportedly is equivalent to adding 9-10 points to the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score.

Sarcopenia is typically associated with body composition changes with decreased muscle mass and/or low skeletal muscle index. Change in one or more of appendicular lean mass, total lean mass, fat mass, high VAT (visceral adipose tissue), waist circumference, weight, and/or BMI are notable features. Myosteotosis (fat infiltration in muscles) is indicative of poor muscle quality. Frailty is a state of low energetics accompanied with low physical performance/mobility probably because of poor muscle strength/function and is assessed via various measures such as decreased gait speed, weak hand grip; slow rising from a chair, balance, isometric knee extension peak torque or a composite measure such as liver frailty index (LFI).

Reportedly, as shown in the figure below, muscle disorder such as sarcopenia and myosteotosis in cirrhosis could be a clinically meaningful predictor of survival and mortality with lower survival in cirrhotic patients with accompanying muscle disorders.

[[Image Removed]]

Montano-Loza, J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2016 May; 7(2): 126-135

Muscle Disorders and Mortality in Liver Cirrhosis

Sarcopenia develops in the majority of male cirrhosis patients. The main mechanisms associated with sarcopenia and decompensated cirrhosis include a catabolic state, progressive immobility, imbalance between muscle breakdown and formation, and hormonal changes. Patients are typically diagnosed with decompensated cirrhosis upon development of cirrhotic symptoms (e.g., jaundice, HE), and the diagnosis is confirmed via various liver function/imaging tests (e.g., MELD score, liver biopsy, CT scan). A variety of clinical evaluations for muscle mass, strength, and function are typically used to diagnose sarcopenia. Sarcopenia in cirrhosis also correlates with decompensation events, particularly HE (sarcopenia is about 2-fold more prevalent in overt HE patients than those without overt HE). Notably, low testosterone in males is associated with sarcopenia, severity of cirrhosis, and mortality.

Reportedly, as shown in figure below, sarcopenia is a predictor for increased mortality in cirrhosis (about 2-fold higher compared to no sarcopenia).

[[Image Removed]]

Tantai et al. J. Hepatol. 2022, 76, 588-599

Reportedly, as shown in figure below, pre transplant sarcopenia in liver cirrhosis often produces poor post-transplant outcomes with higher mortality rates. Longer post-transplant hospitalization and rehabilitation can be demanding on the individual, both physically and financially.

[[Image Removed]]

Englesbe et al. J Am Coll Surg. 2010 Aug;211(2):271-8

Myosteatosis in cirrhosis

Myosteatosis, fat infiltration in muscles, has been found in many cirrhotic patients undergoing liver transplant evaluation, and studies have associated it with more complications and poor survival. Myosteatosis is characteristically associated with liver steatosis in NAFLD, resulting from ectopic fat accumulation in skeletal muscle. Myosteatosis may affect many individuals who do not meet the anthropometric criteria for sarcopenia or obesity. The accumulation of excess fat in extramyocellular compartments is mostly pathologic. It can be defined as intramuscular (between muscle fibers) or intermuscular (between muscle fascicles) and is associated with lower muscle function and strength, muscle atrophy, and physical disabilities.

Frailty and cirrhosis

Frailty is a state of low energetics accompanied with low physical performance/mobility, usually as a result of poor muscle strength/function and its presence is assessed via various measures such as decreased gait speed, weak hand grip, slow rising from a chair, poor balance, low isometric knee extension peak torque or a composite measure such as liver frailty index (LFI).

Reportedly, as shown in figure below, frailty predicts LT waitlist mortality among outpatients with cirrhosis regardless of the MELD score.

[[Image Removed]]

Lai et al. Am J Transplant. 2014 Aug;14(8):1870-9

The presence of frailty is associated with increased waitlist death/delisting

Moreover, it has also been reported, as shown in figure below, that there is a higher incidence of waitlist mortality as the frailty worsened.

[[Image Removed: Chart Description automatically generated with low confidence]]

Lai et al. J Hepatol. 2020 Sep;73(3):575-581.

Trajectory of liver frailty and mortality

Currently, there are no FDA approved drugs to treat secondary sarcopenia in cirrhosis. We believe we are the only clinical-stage company pursuing decompensation in sarcopenic cirrhotic patients, and no regulatory precedent currently exists for the approval of decompensation or sarcopenia-targeted therapies. We believe LPCN 1148 has the potential to aid the management of decompensation events in male sarcopenic cirrhotic patients through the following possible mechanisms of action: myo-augmentation (impact muscle mass and/or quality and/or function) via myostatin inhibition, myosteatosis reduction, anti-catabolic effect, changes in body composition (increase lean mass and/or reduce fat mass) and slowing muscle autophagy; inducing hepato-effective actions with improved key liver injury markers; increase protein synthesis; improve anemia, induce immunomodulation with improvement of immuno-dysregulation, and lower infection rates; anti-inflammatory/antioxidant effects by lowering undesirable cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-?; and improve mitochondrial function.(1)

(1) Ref: Leise. Mayo Clin Proc. 2014.; Hudson. Eur J Gastroenterol. 2019.; Bajaj.

LPCN 1144: An Oral Prodrug of Bioidentical Testosterone Product Candidate for the Treatment of NASH

We are currently evaluating LPCN 1144, an oral prodrug of bioidentical testosterone comprised of TU, for the treatment of non-cirrhotic NASH.

Disease Overview - NASH

NASH is a more advanced state of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease ("NAFLD") and can progress to a cirrhotic liver or liver failure, require liver transplant, and can result in hepatocellular carcinoma/ liver cancer, and death. Progression of NASH to end stage liver disease will soon surpass all other causes of liver failure requiring liver transplantation. Importantly, beyond these critical conditions, NASH and NAFLD patients additionally suffer heightened cardiovascular risk and, in fact, die more frequently from cardiovascular events than from liver disease. NAFLD/NASH is becoming more common due to its strong correlation with obesity and metabolic syndrome, including components of metabolic syndrome such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and high blood pressure. Twenty to thirty percent of the U.S. population is estimated to suffer from NAFLD and fifteen to twenty percent of this group progresses to NASH, which is a substantially large population that lacks an effective therapy. NASH is a silent killer that affects millions in the U.S. Diagnoses have been on the rise and are expected to increase dramatically in the next decade. Approximately 50% of NASH patients are in adult males. In men, especially with comorbidities associated with NAFLD/NASH, testosterone deficiency has been associated with an increased visceral adipose tissue and insulin resistance, which could be factors contributing to NAFLD/NASH. There is currently no approved therapy for the treatment of NASH although there are several drug candidates currently under development with many clinical failures to date.

The critical pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the development and progression of NASH include reduced ability to handle lipids, increased insulin resistance, injury to hepatocytes and liver fibrosis in response to hepatocyte injury. NASH patients have an excessive accumulation of fat in the liver resulting primarily from a caloric intake above and beyond energy needs. A healthy liver contains less than 5% fat, but a liver in someone with NASH can contain more than 20% fat. This abnormal liver fat contributes to the progression to NASH, a liver necro-inflammatory state that can lead to scarring, also known as fibrosis, and, for some, can progress to cirrhosis and liver failure.

Markers of Liver Cell Death

Alanine aminotransferase ("ALT") is an enzyme that is produced in liver cells and is naturally found in the blood of healthy individuals. In liver disease, liver cells are damaged and, as a consequence, ALT is released into the blood, increasing ALT levels above the normal range. Physicians routinely test blood levels of ALT to monitor the health of a patient's liver. ALT level is a clinically important biochemical marker of the severity of liver inflammation and ongoing liver disease. Elevated levels of ALT represent general markers of liver cell death and inflammation without regard to any specific mechanism. Aspartate aminotransferase ("AST") is a second enzyme found in the blood that is produced in the liver and routinely measured by physicians along with ALT. As with ALT, AST is often elevated in liver disease and, like ALT, is considered an overall marker of liver inflammation.


Most people with NASH are asymptomatic and their disease is often discovered incidentally following a liver imaging procedure, such as an ultrasound, prescribed for other reasons or as part of an investigation for elevated liver enzymes. Once suspected clinically, a liver biopsy is required to definitively diagnose NASH, which necessitates the joint presence of steatosis, ballooning and lobular inflammation. Once pathologically confirmed, the severity of NAFLD and NASH is determined using the histologically validated NAFLD activity score, which grades disease activity on a scale of 0 to 8. The NAFLD activity score is the sum of the individual scores for steatosis (0 to 3), lobular inflammation (0 to 3), and hepatocellular ballooning (0 to 2) but does not include a score for fibrosis. Fibrosis staging (F0-F4) relies on the NASH CRN classification (F0 = no fibrosis; F1 = perisinusoidal or portal/periportal fibrosis (not both); F2 = both perisinusoidal and portal/periportal fibrosis; F3 = bridging fibrosis; F4 = cirrhosis).

. . .

May 09, 2022


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