(EDGAR Online via COMTEX) -- Item 2. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with (1) our condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and (2) the audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes and management's discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2019 included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, on February 20, 2020.
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. These statements are often identified by the use of words such as "anticipate," "believe," "continue," "could," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "may," "plan," "project," "will," "would," or the negative or plural of these words or similar expressions or variations, including statements regarding our future financial and operating performance, anticipated expansion of the usage of partners to perform professional services, the increase of our subscriptions revenue as a percentage of total revenue, the fluctuation of gross margin in the short term and improvement of gross margin over time, our future capital requirements, and uncertain negative impacts that COVID-19 may have on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and changes in overall level of spending and volatility in the global economy. Such forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties, assumptions, and other factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified herein and those discussed in the section titled "Risk Factors," set forth in Part I, Item 1A of our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 20, 2020 and in our other filings with the SEC. You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Furthermore, such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements.
We provide a low-code automation platform that accelerates the creation of high-impact business applications, enabling our customers to automate the most important aspects of their business. Global organizations use our applications to improve customer experience, achieve operational excellence, and simplify global risk management and compliance.
With our platform, organizations can rapidly and easily design, build, and implement powerful, enterprise-grade custom applications through our intuitive, visual interface with little or no coding required. Our customers have used applications built on our platform to launch new business lines, automate vital employee workflows, manage complex trading platforms,
accelerate drug development, and build global procurement systems. With our platform, decision makers can reimagine their products, services, processes, and customer interactions by removing much of the complexity and many of the challenges associated with traditional approaches to software development.
We have generated the majority of our revenue from sales of subscriptions, which include (1) software as a service subscriptions bundled with maintenance and support and hosting services and (2) term license subscriptions bundled with maintenance and support. Our subscription fees are based primarily on the number of users who access and utilize the applications built on our platform or, alternatively, non-user based single application licenses. Our customer contract terms generally vary from one to three years with most providing for payment in advance on an annual, quarterly, or monthly basis. Due to the variability of our billing terms and the episodic nature of our customers purchasing additional subscriptions, we do not believe changes in our deferred revenue in a given period are directly correlated with our revenue growth.
Since inception, we have invested in our professional services organization to help ensure customers are able to build and deploy applications on our platform. We have several strategic partnerships, including with KPMG, PwC, Accenture, and Deloitte, for them to refer customers to us in order to purchase subscriptions and then to provide professional services directly to the customers using our platform. We intend to further grow our base of strategic partners to provide broader customer coverage and solution delivery capabilities. In addition, over time we expect professional services revenue as a percentage of total revenue to decline as we increasingly rely on strategic partners to help our customers deploy our software. We believe our investment in professional services, including strategic partners building their practices around Appian, will drive increased adoption of our platform.
Our customers include financial services, life sciences, government, telecommunications, media, energy, manufacturing, and transportation organizations. Generally, our sales force targets its efforts on organizations with over 2,000 employees and $2 billion in annual revenue. Revenue from government agencies represented 19.0% and 16.8% of our total revenue in the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively, as compared to 16.8% and 17.3% of our total revenue in the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively. No single end-customer accounted for more than 10% of our total revenue in the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 or June 30, 2019.
Our platform supports multiple languages to facilitate collaboration and address challenges in multi-national organizations. We offer our platform globally. In the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, 36.8% and 35.0%, respectively, of our total revenue was generated from customers outside of the United States as compared to 32.9% and 32.4% in the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, respectively. As of June 30, 2020, we operated in 12 countries. We believe we have a significant opportunity to grow our international footprint. We are investing in new geographies, including through investment in direct and indirect sales channels, professional services, and customer support and implementation partners.
Basis of Reporting - ASC 606
We adopted ASC 606, the new revenue recognition guidance, on January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective method. Under this method of adoption, we recognized the cumulative effect of initially applying the new revenue standard as an adjustment to the opening balance of accumulated deficit and applied the new standard only to contracts that were not completed prior to January 1, 2019.
Because we were an emerging growth company until December 31, 2019, the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act allowed us to delay adoption of ASC 606 until such time it was made applicable to private companies. We elected to use this extended transition period, and accordingly, did not report revenues under ASC 606 in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q during 2019. Refer to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on February 20, 2020, for a complete reconciliation of our revenues under the old and new guidance. Prior period amounts in this Form 10-Q have been recast as if we had reported under ASC 606 for the applicable periods.
In June 2020, we completed an underwritten public offering of 2,500,000 shares of our Class A common stock, of which 1,931,206 shares of Class A common stock were sold by us and 568,794 shares of Class A common stock were sold by existing
stockholders. The underwriter purchased the shares from us and the selling stockholders at a price of $56.50 per share. Our net proceeds from the offering were $107.9 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses. We did not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of shares by the selling stockholders.
Beginning in late 2019 and continuing into the second quarter of 2020, the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease, or COVID-19, has resulted in the declaration of a global pandemic and adversely affected economic activity across virtually all sectors and industries on a local, national, and global scale. The impact of COVID-19 on the economy and our business continues to be a fluid situation.
Operationally, we remain focused on supporting our customers, employees, and communities during this time. We have responded quickly to adopt a virtual corporate strategy consisting of enabling most of our employees to work productively from home while continuing to guard the health and safety of our teams, support our customers, and mitigate risk. We are focused on ensuring continuity for our customers. To the extent possible, we are conducting business as usual, with necessary or advisable modifications to employee travel, employee work locations, and marketing events.
Through June 30, 2020, we have not seen a meaningful adverse impact to our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows and liquidity as a result of COVID-19. While the verticals from which we have historically generated the majority of our revenue have been less impacted by COVID-19 to date, there may be impacts to our financial condition and results of operations in the third quarter of 2020 and beyond as a result of reduced demand for our products and services and longer sales cycles. The ultimate impact of COVID-19 on our business is not estimable at this time and will be largely dependent upon a number of factors outside of our control including the extent and duration of the outbreak as well as any mitigating actions which may be undertaken by global governments and the general public.
Our Business Model
Our business model focuses on maximizing the lifetime value of customer relationships, which is a function of the duration of a customer's deployment of Appian as well as the price and number of subscriptions of Appian that a customer purchases. We incur significant customer acquisition costs, including expenses associated with hiring new sales representatives, who generally take more than one year to become productive given the length of our sales cycle, and marketing costs, all of which, with the exception of sales commissions, are expensed as incurred.
Key Factors Affecting Our Performance
The following are several key factors that affect our performance:
Market Adoption of Our Platform. Our ability to grow our customer base and drive market adoption of our platform is affected by the pace at which organizations digitally transform. We expect our revenue growth will be primarily driven by the pace of adoption and penetration of our platform. We offer a leading custom software automation platform and intend to continue to invest to expand our customer base. The degree to which prospective customers recognize the need for low-code software that enables organizations to digitally transform, and subsequently allocate budget dollars to purchase our software, will drive our ability to acquire new customers and increase sales to existing customers, which, in turn, will affect our future financial performance.
Growth of Our Customer Base. We believe we have a substantial opportunity to grow our customer base. We define a customer as an entity with an active subscription or maintenance and support contract related to a perpetual software license as of the specified measurement date. To the extent we contract with one or more entities under common control, we count those entities as separate customers. We have aggressively invested, and intend to continue to invest, in our sales force in order to drive sales to new customers. In particular, we have recently made, and plan to continue to make, investments to enhance the expertise of our sales and marketing organization within our key industry verticals of financial services, life sciences, and government. In addition, we have established relationships with strategic partners who work with organizations undergoing digital transformations. Our ability to continue to grow our customer base is dependent, in part, upon our ability to compete within the increasingly competitive markets in which we participate.
Further Penetration of Existing Customers. Our sales force seeks to generate additional revenue from existing customers by adding new users to our platform. Many of our customers begin by building a single application and then grow to build dozens of applications on our platform. Generally, the development of new applications on our platform results in the expansion of our user base within an organization and a corresponding increase in revenue to us because we charge subscription fees on a per-user basis for the significant majority of our customer contracts. As a result of this "land and expand" strategy, we have generated significant additional revenue from our customer base. Our ability to increase sales to existing customers will depend on a number of factors, including the size of our sales force and professional services teams, customers' level of satisfaction with our platform and professional services, pricing, economic conditions, and our customers' overall spending levels. We have also refocused some of our professional services personnel to become customer success managers. Their role is to ensure the customer realizes value from our platform and support the "land and expand" strategy versus delivering billable hours.
Mix of Subscription and Professional Services Revenue. We believe our professional services have driven customer success and facilitated the adoption of our platform by customers. During the initial period of deployment by a customer, we generally provide a greater amount of support in building applications and training than later in the deployment, with a typical engagement extending from two to six months. At the same time, many of our customers have historically purchased subscriptions only for a limited set of their total potential end users. As a result of these factors, the proportion of total revenue for a customer associated with professional services is relatively high during the initial deployment period. Over time, as the need for professional services associated with user deployments decreases and the number of end users increases, we expect subscriptions revenue as a percentage of total revenue to increase. In addition, we intend to further grow our base of strategic partners to provide broader customer coverage and solution delivery capabilities. These partners perform professional services with respect to any new service contracts they sign. As the usage of partners expands, we expect the proportion of our total revenue from subscriptions to increase over time relative to professional services. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, 62.0% and 63.1% of our revenue, respectively, was derived from sales of subscriptions while the remaining 38.0% and 36.9%, respectively, was derived from the sale of professional services. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, 56.5% and 56.9% of our revenue, respectively, was derived from sales of subscriptions while the remaining 43.5% and 43.1%, respectively, was derived from the sale of professional services.
Investments in Growth. We have made and plan to continue to make investments for long-term growth, including investment in our platform and infrastructure to continuously maximize the power and simplicity of the platform to meet the evolving needs of our customers and to take advantage of our market opportunity. In addition, we continue to pursue strategic acquisitions that enhance our product offerings as evidenced by our recent acquisition of Novayre. We also intend to continue to invest in sales and marketing as we further expand our sales teams, increase our marketing activities, and grow our international operations.
Key Metrics We monitor the following metrics to help us measure and evaluate the effectiveness of our operations. All dollar amounts are presented in thousands. Cloud Subscription Revenue Six Months Ended June Three Months Ended June 30, 30, 2020 2019 2020 2019 Cloud subscription revenue $ 29,580 $ 22,796 $ 57,970 $ 44,074
Cloud subscription revenue includes SaaS subscriptions bundled with maintenance and support and hosting services. As we generally sell our SaaS subscriptions on a per-user basis, our cloud subscription revenue for any customer is primarily determined by the number of users who access and utilize the applications built on our platform as well as the price paid. We believe increasing cloud subscription revenue is an indicator of the demand for our platform, the pace at which the market for our solutions is growing, the productivity of our sales force and strategic relationships in growing our customer base, and our ability to further penetrate our existing customer base.
Cloud Subscription Revenue Retention Rate
As of June 30, 2020 2019 Cloud subscription revenue retention rate 113 % 122 %
A key factor to our success is the renewal and expansion of subscription agreements with our existing customers. We calculate this metric over a set of customers who have been with us for at least one full year. To calculate our cloud subscription revenue retention rate for a particular trailing 12-month period, we first establish the recurring cloud subscription revenue for the previous trailing 12-month period. This effectively represents recurring dollars we should expect in the current trailing 12-month period from the cohort of customers from the previous trailing 12-month period without any expansion or contraction. We subsequently measure the recurring cloud subscription revenue in the current trailing 12-month period from the cohort of customers from the previous trailing 12-month period. Cloud subscription revenue retention rate is then calculated by dividing the aggregate recurring cloud subscription revenue in the current trailing 12-month period by the previous trailing 12-month period. This calculation includes the impact on our revenue from customer non-renewals, pricing changes, and growth in the number of users on our platform. Our cloud subscription revenue retention rate can fluctuate from period to period due to large customer contracts in any given period. The cloud subscription revenue retention rate as of June 30, 2019 was elevated as we continued to focus on converting customers with on-premises term license subscriptions to cloud subscriptions.
Key Components of Results of Operations
We generate revenue primarily through sales of subscriptions to our platform as well as professional services. We generally sell our software on a per-user basis and, to a lesser degree, non-user based single application licenses. We generally bill customers and collect payment for subscriptions to our platform in advance on an annual, quarterly, or monthly basis. In certain instances, we have had customers pay their entire contract value up front.
Our revenue is comprised of the following:
Subscriptions revenue is primarily derived from:
SaaS subscriptions bundled with maintenance and support and hosting services; and
On-premises term license subscriptions bundled with maintenance and support.
Our maintenance and support agreements provide customers with the right to unspecified software upgrades, maintenance releases and patches released during the term of the maintenance and support agreement on a when-and-if-available basis, and rights to technical support. When our platform is deployed within a customer's own data center or private cloud, it is installed on the customer's infrastructure and generally offered as a term license. When our platform is delivered as a SaaS subscription, we handle its operational needs in third-party hosted data centers.
Our professional services revenue is comprised of fees for consulting services, including application development and deployment assistance and training related to our platform. Over time, as the need for professional services associated with user deployments decreases and the number of end users increases, we expect professional services revenue as percentage of total revenue to decrease. Additionally, if there is a decline in our procurement of new customers as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we may also see a similar decline in professional services revenue.
We have several strategic partnerships, including with KPMG, PwC, Accenture, and Deloitte. Our agreements with our strategic partners have indefinite terms and may be terminated for convenience by either party. We intend to further grow our base of strategic partners to provide broader customer coverage and solution delivery capabilities. These partners refer software subscription customers to us and generally perform professional services with respect to any new service contracts they originate, increasing our subscriptions revenue without any change to our professional services revenue. As we expand the
network of strategic partners, we expect professional services revenue to decline as a percentage of total revenue over time since our strategic partners may perform professional services associated with software subscriptions that we sell.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of subscriptions revenue consists primarily of fees paid to our third-party managed hosting providers and other third-party service providers, personnel costs, including payroll and benefits for our technology operations and customer support teams, and allocated facility costs and overhead. We expect cost of revenue to continue to increase in absolute dollars for the foreseeable future as our customer base grows.
Cost of professional services revenue includes all direct and indirect costs to deliver our professional services and training, including employee compensation for our global professional services and training personnel, travel costs, third-party contractor costs, and allocated facility costs and overhead as well as the costs of billable expenses such as travel and lodging. The unpredictability of the timing of entering into significant professional services agreements sold on a standalone basis may cause significant fluctuations in our quarterly financial results.
Gross profit and gross margin, or gross profit as a percentage of total revenue, has been, and will continue to be, affected by various factors, including the mix of subscriptions revenue and professional services revenue. Subscription pricing, the costs associated with third-party hosting facilities, and the extent to which we expand our professional services to support future growth will impact our gross margins. Our gross margin may fluctuate from period to period based on the above factors.
Subscriptions Gross Margin. Subscriptions gross margin is primarily affected by the growth in our subscriptions revenue as compared to the growth in, and timing of, costs to support such revenue. We expect to continue to invest in customer support and SaaS operations to support growth in the business, and the timing of those investments is expected to cause gross margins to fluctuate in the short term but improve over time.
Professional Services Gross Margin. Professional services gross margin is affected by the growth in our professional services revenue as compared to the growth in, and timing of, the cost of our professional services organization as we continue to invest in the growth of our business. Professional services gross margin is impacted by the amount of services performed by subcontractors as opposed to internal resources. Our professional services gross margin is also impacted by the amount of services performed by partners as opposed to internal resources.
Operating expenses consist of sales and marketing, research and development, and general and administrative expenses. Salaries, bonuses, and other personnel-related costs are the most significant components of each of these expense categories. In general, our operating expenses are expected to continue to increase as we invest resources in growing our various teams. However, our hiring activity in the near term will likely be lower in comparison to prior periods as a result of cost controlling measures we are implementing in response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
Sales and Marketing Expense
Sales and marketing expense primarily includes personnel costs, including salaries, bonuses, commissions, stock-based compensation, and other personnel costs related to sales teams. Additional expenses in this category include travel and entertainment, marketing and promotional events, marketing activities, subcontracting fees, and allocated facility costs and overhead.
In order to continue to grow our business, geographical footprint, and brand awareness, we expect sales and marketing expense to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to invest to acquire new customers and further expand usage of our platform within our existing customer base.
Research and Development Expense
Research and development expense consists primarily of personnel costs for our employees who develop and enhance our platform, including salaries, bonuses, stock-based compensation, and other personnel costs. Also included are non-personnel costs such as subcontracting, consulting and professional fees to third party development resources, allocated facility costs, overhead, and depreciation and amortization costs.
Our research and development efforts are focused on enhancing the speed and power of our software platform. We expect research and development expenses to continue to increase as they are critical to maintain and improve our quality of applications and our competitive position.
General and Administrative Expense
General and administrative expense consists primarily of personnel costs, including salaries, bonuses, stock-based compensation, and other personnel costs for our administrative, legal, information technology, human resources, finance and accounting employees, and executives. Additional expenses included in this category are non-personnel costs such as travel-related expenses, contracting and professional fees, audit fees, tax services and legal fees, as well as insurance and other corporate expenses, along with allocated facility costs and overhead.
We expect our general and administrative expense to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to support our growth.
Other (Income) Expense
Other (Income) Expense, Net
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Aug 06, 2020
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