(EDGAR Online via COMTEX) -- Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with the "Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data" and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this 10-K filing. This discussion contains forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under the section titled "Risk Factors" or in other parts of this Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any period in the future. Except as otherwise noted, all references to 2021 refer to the year ended December 31, 2021 and all references to 2020 refer to the year ended December 31, 2020. Discussion on the year ended December 31, 2019 can be found in our prospectus filed on October 22, 2021.
Our branded portfolio is led by our Vita Coco brand, which is the leader in the global coconut water category, and also includes coconut oil and coconut milk offerings. Our other brands include Runa, a leading plant-based energy drink inspired from the guayusa plant native to Ecuador, Ever & Ever, a sustainably packaged water, and the recently launched PWR LIFT, a protein-infused fitness drink. We also supply private label products to key retailers in both the coconut water and coconut oil categories.
We source our coconut water, from a diversified global network of 15 factories across seven countries supported by thousands of coconut farmers. As we do not own any of the coconut water factories, our supply chain is a fixed asset-lite model designed to better react to changes in the market or consumer preferences. We also work with co-packers in America and Europe to support local packaging and repacking of our products and to better service our customers' needs.
Vita Coco is available in over 30 countries, with our primary markets in North America, the United Kingdom, and China. Our primary markets for private label are North America and Europe. Our products are distributed primarily through club, food, drug, mass, convenience, e-commerce, and foodservice channels. We are also available in a variety of on-premise locations such as corporate offices, fitness clubs, airports, cruise lines, and educational institutions.
Our recent historical financial performance reflects the strides we have made to scale and grow our business:
For the year ended December 31, 2021, we reported net sales of $380 million, representing a 22% increase from $311 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. For the three months ended December 31, 2021, we reported net sales of $87 million, representing a 25% increase from $70 million for the three months ended December 31, 2020 primarily driven by a 61% increase in net sales of Vita Coco Coconut Water during the same period.
For the year ended December 31, 2021, we generated gross profit of $113 million, representing a margin of 30% and a 8% increase from $105 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. For the three months ended
December 31, 2021, we generated gross profit of $22 million, representing a margin of 25% and remaining relatively flat in absolute dollar terms compared to $23 million for the three months ended December 31, 2020.
For the year ended December 31, 2021, our net income was $19 million, representing a margin of 5% and a 8% decrease from our net income of $33 million and a margin of 11% for the year ended December 31, 2020. For the three months ended December 31, 2021, our net loss was $3 million, representing a negative margin of 4% and a 120% decrease from our net income of $17 million and margin of 25% for the three months ended December 31, 2020.
For the year ended December 31, 2021, our adjusted EBITDA was $37 million, representing a margin of 10% and increase of 5% from our adjusted EBITDA of $35 million, representing a margin of 11% for the year ended December 31, 2020. The declining margin was primarily driven by severe escalation of transportation costs, especially ocean freight. For the three months ended December 31, 2021, our adjusted EBITDA loss was $1 million, representing a negative margin of 1% and a decrease of 89% from our adjusted EBITDA of $5 million for the three months ended December 31, 2020, due in part to the challenging supply chain environment we experienced during the three months ended December 31, 2021.
We have traditionally experienced minimal capital expenditures given our asset-lite supply chain model. We believe that our operating cash flow and access to credit facilities provide us with sufficient capability to support our growth plans.
As of December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, we had $0 million and $25 million, respectively, of outstanding indebtedness.
Key Factors Affecting Our Performance
We believe that the growth of our business and our future success are dependent upon many factors, the most important of which are as follows:
Ability to Grow and Maintain the Health of Our Brands
We have developed a strong and trusted brand in Vita Coco that we believe has been integral to the growth and health of our business, and are in the early stages of developing additional brands to broaden our portfolio. In addition, we are continuously developing and sharpening our marketing strategies to ensure that our story and purpose are understood and resonate with consumers. The success and reputation of our current brands and any brands we develop in the future are critical to the growth of our business and our future success. We aim to grow our brands by expanding distribution, adding new formats, promoting trials with new consumers and investing in marketing to attract new consumers and demonstrating to existing consumers the quality and value of their purchases. To grow and maintain the health of our bands we must invest in sales and marketing and execute on our sales strategy to develop and deepen consumers' connection to our brands. We believe that the strength of our core brand, Vita Coco, should enable us to continue to invest in expanding our brands across beverage categories and channels, and to deepen relationships with consumers across all demographics.
Ability to Generate Incremental Volume Through Product Innovation
The beverage industry is subject to shifting consumer preferences which presents opportunities for new beverage occasions, new tastes and new functional benefits. Our future success is therefore partially dependent on our ability to identify these trends and develop products and brands that effectively meet those needs. Our innovation efforts focus on developing and marketing product extensions, improving upon the quality and taste profiles of existing products, and introducing new products or brands to meet evolving consumer needs. We aim to develop and test new products, and scale the most promising among them to ensure a strong pipeline of product innovation.
We maintain in-house research and development capabilities as well as strong third-party relationships with flavor development houses, and we monitor the latest advancements in clean ingredients to support continued innovation and learning. Our ability to successfully improve existing products, or develop, market and sell new products or brands depends on our commitment and continued investment in innovation, and our willingness to try and fail and learn from our experiences.
Relationship with Suppliers and Asset-Lite Supply Chain Model
We believe our global asset lite supply chain model has been an integral part in our ability to efficiently scale our business and compete in the marketplace. This asset-lite model creates leverage with our partners across our supply chain, allowing us to effectively manage total delivery costs and affording greater ability to shift volume between our suppliers,
and thus better manage our supply levels. In addition, our scale of sourcing has allowed us to add volume and service retailers more reliably, and our global position as the largest and highest quality coconut water procurer in the world protects our customer and supplier relationships. We aim to drive continuous operational improvements with our supplier partners to enhance quality of our products, better control costs and ultimately maintain our competitive advantage. Our dedicated engineering support team supports our supply partners' expansion, efficiency and environmental initiatives and shares best practices across our supplier network.
Ability to Successfully Execute Both In-Store and Online
To aid the growth of our business, we intend to continue improving our operational efficiency and leverage our brand position across channels, and therefore have a balanced approach to investment and development of capabilities in retail and e-commerce execution. Our DSD network is an important asset in executing physical retail programs and ensuring product availability and visibility in the United States. Managing our DSD network requires relationship building and communication as to plans, and alignment of goals and interests. We look to adapt our approaches as consumer and retail behavior changes to ensure we remain competitive and visible regardless of channel.
Quarterly Performance of Our Business
The beverage market is subject to seasonal variations, and we have typically experienced moderately higher levels of our sales in the second and third quarters of the year when demand for our functional beverage products are highest during the warmer months. Our fourth quarter shipments can also be influenced by our retailer and distributor customers rightsizing their inventory levels after the peak selling levels of the second and third quarters.
Our sales can also be influenced by the timing of holidays and weather fluctuations. In addition, our financial results may fluctuate from quarter to quarter due to the timing of significant promotional activity or programs of our retail customers, on-boarding new retail or distribution partnerships, which typically launch with inventory buy-ins, and the timing of new product launches, which may also impact comparability to prior periods. These factors can also impact our working capital and inventory balances in each period in ways that may be difficult to forecast. Our goal is to make the right business decisions for our long-term success despite fluctuations in quarterly operating results.
Economic Environment & Industry Trends
Our business is healthier where consumers have higher discretionary incomes and are motivated by health and wellness diets and hydration. Most of our products are at premium prices reflecting their functionality and uniqueness so we do better in more developed economies and major urban areas. As economies continue to develop and education on health and wellness becomes more mainstream, we anticipate our offerings becoming more appealing and endeavor to position our products to benefit from such changes.
Impact of COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused general business disruption worldwide beginning in January 2020. The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will directly or indirectly impact the Company's cash flow, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects will depend on future developments, including the duration, spread and intensity of the pandemic (including any resurgences), impact of the new COVID-19 variants and the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines, and the level of social and economic restrictions imposed in the United States and abroad in an effort to curb the spread of the virus, all of which are uncertain and difficult to predict considering the rapidly evolving landscape.
The Company has experienced some impacts on inventory availability and delivery capacity since the outbreak which have impacted, at times, the Company's ability to fully service its customers, including temporary facility shutdowns, local transportation interruptions, and general pressure on global shipping lines. The Company has taken measures to bolster key aspects of its supply chain and the Company continues to work with its supply chain partners to try to ensure its ability to service its customers. Although not a material impact in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, the Company saw in fiscal year 2021 significant changes to global ocean shipping availability and pricing of containers, lengthening transit times, increased domestic transportation costs and some payroll inflationary effects among other impacts. Starting in the second quarter 2021, we took pricing actions such as delaying promotions until later in the year, reducing discounting and sharing cost increases with private label customers as we were able, in order to partially offset the inflationary costs of goods effects we were experiencing.
For the year ended December 31, 2021, we estimate that our EBITDA absorbed incremental costs of goods on a rate/mix basis compared to prior year of approximately $24 million, relating to transportation cost increases across both ocean
The Company is continuing to monitor the situation carefully to understand any future potential impact on its people and business. The Company is taking all necessary steps to protect its people and mitigate any risk to its business. As a result, it is not currently possible to ascertain the overall impact of COVID-19 on the Company's business, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity. Future events and effects related to COVID-19 cannot be determined with precision and actual results could significantly differ from estimates or forecasts.
Components of Our Results of Operations
We generate revenue through the sale of our Vita Coco branded coconut water, Private Label and Other products in the Americas and International segments. Our sales are predominantly made to distributors or to retailers for final sale to consumers through retail channels, which includes sales to traditional brick and mortar retailers, who may also resell our products through their own online platforms. Our revenue is recognized net of allowances for returns, discounts, credits and any taxes collected from consumers.
Cost of Goods Sold
Cost of goods sold includes the costs of the products sold to customers, inbound and outbound shipping and handling costs, freight and duties, shipping and packaging supplies, and warehouse fulfillment costs.
Gross Profit and Gross Margin
Gross profit is net sales less cost of goods sold, and gross margin is gross profit as a percentage of net sales. Gross profit has been, and will continue to be, affected by various factors, including the mix of products we sell, the channel through which we sell our products, the promotional environment in the marketplace, manufacturing costs, commodity prices and transportation rates. We expect that our gross margin will fluctuate from period to period depending on the interplay of these variables.
Management believes gross margin provides investors with useful information related to the profitability of our business prior to considering all of the operating costs incurred. Management uses gross profit and gross margin as key measures in making financial, operating and planning decisions and in evaluating our performance.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses include marketing expenses, sales promotion expenses, and general and administrative expenses. Marketing and sales promotion expenses consist primarily of costs incurred promoting and marketing our products and are primarily driven by investments to grow our business and retain customers. We expect selling and marketing expenses to increase in absolute dollars and to vary from period to period as a percentage of net sales for the foreseeable future. General and administrative expense include payroll, employee benefits, stock-based compensation, broker commissions and other headcount-related expenses associated with supply chain & operations, finance, information technology, human resources and other administrative-related personnel, as well as general overhead costs of the business, including research and development for new innovations, rent and related facilities and maintenance costs, depreciation and amortization, and legal, accounting, and professional fees. We expense all selling, general and administrative expense as incurred. We expect selling, general and administrative expenses to increase in absolute dollars to support business growth and, in the near term, our transition to a public company.
Change in Fair Value of Contingent Consideration
In connection with our acquisition of Runa, we agreed to pay contingent payments to Runa's former shareholders only if a certain revenue growth rate is achieved. Assuming the revenue growth is achieved, the former shareholders could elect for payment to be calculated based on quarterly data available between December 2021 and December 2022, as follows: 49% of the product of (a) the net revenue for the trailing 12 calendar months and (b) a specified multiple, which is contingent on the revenue growth achieved since December 31, 2017. The contingent consideration payout cannot exceed
$51.5 million. If a certain revenue growth rate is not achieved, the Company is not required to pay any contingent payment. The contingent consideration payable to Runa's former shareholders was re-measured at fair value, which reflects estimates, assumptions, and expectations on Runa's revenue and revenue growth as of the valuation date. A key factor in the contingent consideration calculation is whether the growth levels specified in the contract can be met within the four year time period immediately following the acquisition. The design of the payout is to reward for high growth in the initial years following the acquisition. Therefore, the contingent payment reduction, by itself, was not considered a triggering event as it measures against growth targets that must be achieved during a limited period, whereas projections used for intangible and goodwill impairment testing consider a longer period of time. Additionally, the Runa brand has been integrated into the Americas operations, and therefore the goodwill was assigned and tested at the Americas reporting unit level. As such, since the goodwill is tested at this higher reporting unit level, changes in the individual Runa brand projections are not indicative of a triggering event for goodwill since Runa sales are an insignificant portion of the overall financial results of the Americas reporting unit. In 2020, we did elect to perform the quantitative assessment. At the Americas reporting unit level, there was significant cushion between the fair value of the reporting unit and the carrying value, and therefore, no goodwill impairment was recorded. As of December 31, 2021, we expect the contingent consideration to be zero. The contingent consideration will continue to be remeasured until the term of the agreement ends in December 2022. However, we do not believe that the Runa business will achieve the growth targets required and thus we expect that the contingent consideration will be zero at December 2022.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Unrealized Gain/(Loss) on Derivative Instruments
We are subject to foreign currency risks as a result of our inventory purchases and intercompany transactions. In order to mitigate the foreign currency risks, we and our subsidiaries enter into foreign currency exchange contracts which are recorded at fair value. Unrealized gain on derivative instruments consists of gains or losses on such foreign currency exchange contracts which are unsettled as of period end. See "-Qualitative and Quantitative Disclosures about Market Risk-Foreign Currency Exchange Risk" for further information.
Foreign Currency Gain/(Loss)
Our reporting currency is the U.S. dollar. We maintain the financial statements of each entity within the group in its local currency, which is also the entity's functional currency. Foreign currency gain/(loss) represents the transaction gains and losses that arise from exchange rate fluctuations on transactions denominated in a currency other than the functional currency. See "-Qualitative and Quantitative Disclosures about Market Risk-Foreign Currency Exchange Risk" for further information.
Interest income consists of interest income earned on our cash and cash equivalents, and money market funds, as well as interest received as part of an interest rate swap which was terminated in May 2020.
Interest expense consists of interests on our credit facilities and term loans.
Income Tax Expense
We are subject to federal and state income taxes in the United States and taxes in foreign jurisdictions in which we operate. We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities based on temporary differences between the financial reporting and income tax bases of assets and liabilities using statutory rates. We regularly assess the need to record a valuation allowance against net deferred tax assets if, based upon the available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
We operate in two reporting segments:
Americas-The Americas segment is comprised of our operations in the Americas region, primarily in the United States and Canada.
International-The International segment is comprised of our operations primarily in Europe, the Middle East and the Asia Pacific regions.
Each segment derives its revenues from the following product categories:
Vita Coco Coconut Water-This product category consists of all branded coconut water product offerings under the Vita Coco labels, where the majority ingredient is coconut water. For these products, control is transferred upon customer receipt, at which point the Company recognizes the transaction price for the product as revenue.
Private Label -This product category consists of all private label product offerings, which includes coconut water and oil. The Company determined the production and distribution of private label products represents a distinct performance obligation. Since there is no alternative use for these products and the Company has the right to payment for performance completed to date, the Company recognizes the revenue for the production of these private label products over time as the production for open purchase orders occurs, which may be prior to any shipment.
Other-This product category consists of all other products, which includes Runa, Ever & Ever and PWR LIFT product offerings, Vita Coco product extensions beyond coconut water, such as Vita Coco Sparkling, coconut milk products, and other revenue transactions (e.g., bulk product sales). For these products, control is transferred upon customer receipt, at which point the Company recognizes the transaction price for the product as revenue.
Results of Operations Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 The following table summarizes our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively: Year Ended December 31, Change 2021 2020 Amount Percentage (in thousands) (in thousands) Net sales $ 379,513 $ 310,644 $ 68,869 22.2 % Cost of goods sold 266,365 205,786 60,579 29.4 % Gross profit 113,148 104,858 8,290 7.9 % Operating expenses Selling, general and administrative 88,559 74,401 14,158 19.0 % Change in contingent consideration liability - (16,400) 16,400 n/m Total operating expenses 88,559 58,001 30,558 52.7 % Income from operations 24,589 46,857 (22,268) (47.5 %) Other income (expense) Unrealized gain (loss) on derivative instrument 2,093 (4,718) 6,811 n/m Foreign currency gain (loss) (2,088) 1,848 (3,936) n/m (Loss) on extinguishment of debt (132) - (132) n/m Interest income 127 404 (277) (68.6 %) Interest expense (360) (791) 431 (54.5 %) Total other (expense) (360) (3,257) 2,897 (88.9 %) Income before income taxes 24,229 43,600 (19,371) (44.4 %) Provision for income taxes (5,237) (10,913) 5,676 (52.0 %) Net income $ 18,992 $ 32,687 $ (13,695) (41.9 %) Net income attributable to common stockholders $ 19,015 $ 32,660 $ (13,645) (41.8 %)
n/m-represents percentage calculated not being meaningful
Net Sales The following table provides a comparative summary of the Company's net sales by operating segment and product category: Year Ended December 31, Change . . .
Mar 14, 2022
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