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Nov. 10, 2020, 4:03 p.m. EST

10-Q: ORAGENICS INC

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(EDGAR Online via COMTEX) -- ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following information should be read in conjunction with the Financial Statements, including the notes thereto, included elsewhere in this Form 10-Q as well as our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed on March 4, 2020 and our Form 8-K filed on May 8, 2020.

As used in this quarterly report the terms "we", "us", "our", "Oragenics" and the "Company" mean Oragenics, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiary Noachis Terra Inc., unless the context otherwise requires.

Forward-Looking Statements

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q includes "forward-looking" statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. These forward-looking statements are not historical facts, but are based on current expectations, estimates and projections about our industry, our beliefs and our assumptions. These forward-looking statements include statements about our strategies, objectives and our future achievement. To the extent statements in this Quarterly Report involve, without limitation, our expectations for growth, estimates of future revenue, our sources and uses of cash, our liquidity needs, our current or planned clinical trials or research and development activities, product development timelines, our future products, regulatory matters, expense, profits, cash flow balance sheet items or any other guidance on future periods, these statements are forward-looking statements. These statements are often, but not always, made through the use of word or phrases such as "believe," "will," "expect," "anticipate," "estimate," "intend," "plan," and "would. "These forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and concern matters that could subsequently differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements. Actual events or results may differ materially from those discussed in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Except as may be required by applicable law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements or to reflect events or circumstances arising after the date of this Report. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in these forward looking statements are in the section entitled "Risk Factors" in the most recent Annual Report on Form 10- K, as updated by our recent Form 8-K Report filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the other risks and uncertainties described elsewhere in this report as well as other risks identified from time to time in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, press releases and other communications. In addition, the statements contained throughout this Quarterly Report concerning future events or developments or our future activities, including concerning, among other matters, current or planned clinical trials, anticipated research and development activities, anticipated dates for commencement of clinical trials, anticipated completion dates of clinical trials, anticipated meetings with the FDA or other regulatory authorities concerning our product candidates, anticipated dates for submissions to obtain required regulatory marketing approvals, anticipated dates for commercial introduction of products, and other statements concerning our future operations and activities, are forward-looking statements that in each instance assume that we are able to obtain sufficient funding in the near term and thereafter to support such activities and continue our operations and planned activities in a timely manner. There can be no assurance that this will be the case. Also, such statements assume that there are no significant unexpected developments or events that delay or prevent such activities from occurring. Failure to timely obtain sufficient funding, or unexpected developments or events, could delay the occurrence of such events or prevent the events described in any such statements from occurring.

Overview

We are focused on the creation of the TerraCoV2 immunization product candidate to combat the novel coronavirus pandemic and the further development of novel antibiotics against infectious disease.

Our SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Product Candidate- TerraCoV2

As a result of our acquisition of one hundred percent (100%) of the total issued and outstanding common stock of Noachis Terra, Inc. ("Noachis Terra") we are now dedicated to the development and commercialization of a vaccine product candidate to provide specific, long lasting immunity from the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus ("SARS-CoV-2"), which causes the coronavirus disease 2019 ("COVID-19"). Noachis Terra is a party to a worldwide, nonexclusive intellectual property and biological materials license agreement with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ("NIAID"), an institute within the National Institutes of Health ("NIH"), relating to certain research, patent applications and biological materials involving pre-fusion coronavirus spike proteins and their use in the development and commercialization of vaccine to provide specific, long lasting immunity from SARS-CoV-2.

Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that can, when transmitted to humans, lead to upper-respiratory infections. Recent clinical reports also suggest that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can affect other body-systems, including the nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and renal systems. Among the recent iterations of coronaviruses to move from animal to human carriers is SARS-CoV-2 (often referred to as COVID-19), which, beginning in Wuhan, China, in late 2019, caused a global pandemic due to its rapid spread and the relatively high mortality rate (as compared to the seasonal influenza). In early October of 2020, the World Health Organization's estimates indicate the number of worldwide COVID-19 infections have exceeded 36,000,000 and the number of deaths directly attributed to COVID-19 have exceeded 1,000,000. Currently, no governmental regulatory authority in the United States has approved a vaccine specifically targeting SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19. We intend to combine the research, patent applications and biological materials covered by our NIAID license with our existing clinical research and manufacturing capabilities to respond rapidly to this ongoing, global, public health crisis.

Corona viruses, such as SARS -CoV-2, possess signature protein spikes on their outer capsule. The NIAID license covers patents and data on a vaccine candidate that were created based on a stabilized pre-fusion spike trimeric protein. By stabilizing the spike protein in the pre-fusion state, the number of immunogenic centers is increased thereby allowing for a greater likelihood of successful antibody binding, resulting in an improved immunogenic response. The genetic code, acquired from the NIH, for the stabilized pre-fusion spike protein was provided to Aragen Bioscience, Inc. ("Aragen") for the purpose of insertion of the spike protein gene sequence into a Chinese Hamster Ovary ("CHO") cell line. Aragen is a leading contract research organization focused on accelerating preclinical biologics product development, has extensive experience building CHO cell lines for recombinant proteins, such as monoclonal antibodies. Aragen has successfully inserted the NIH pre-fusion spike protein gene sequence into a CHO cell line and is currently developing both the analytical tests and identifying preliminary cell line growth conditions to optimize the spike protein titers. Currently, "mini-pool" production and analytical development is underway. The transfer to full-scale manufacture has begun.

The NIH's preclinical study shows that this spike protein, adjuvanted with the mouse specific TLR-4-agonist Sigma Adjuvant System ("SAS", a TLR-4 agonists) that induces T cell activation), generates neutralizing antibody titers in both a pseudovirus neutralization assay and a plaque reduction neutralization titer (PRNT) assay. In October 2020, we received feedback to our Type B Pre-IND Meeting Request from the FDA. The response indicated that the FDA broadly supported our planned approach to the pre-clinical program that will support the clinical development of the Terra CoV-2, vaccine. As a result, we believe the timelines for both filing an Investigational New Drug ("IND") application and the commencement of the Phase 1 study will proceed on schedule. We anticipate filing the IND in the second quarter of 2021 and immediately upon the receipt of approval from the FDA, commencing the Phase 1 clinical study.

We expect to use our currently available cash resources to continue to advance the development of TerraCoV2 with full development being contingent upon the receipt of additional equity funding.

Our Antibiotic Product Candidate-OG716

Members of our scientific team discovered that a certain bacterial strain. Streptococcus mutans, produces MU1140, a molecule belonging to the novel class of antibiotics known as lantibiotics. Lantibiotics, such as MU1140, are highly modified peptide antibiotics made by a small group of Gram-positive bacterial species. Approximately 60 lantibiotics have been discovered, to date. We believe lantibiotics are generally recognized by the scientific community to be potent antibiotic agents.

In nonclinical testing, MU1140 has shown activity against all Gram-positive bacteria against which it has been tested, including those responsible for a number of healthcare associated infections, or HAIs. A high percentage of hospital-acquired infections are caused by highly resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. We believe the need for novel antibiotics is increasing as a result of the growing resistance of target pathogens to existing FDA approved antibiotics on the market along with the increased use of currently available antibiotics due to secondary infections in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.

Lantibiotics have been difficult to investigate for their clinical usefulness as therapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases due to a general inability to produce or synthesize sufficient quantities of pure amounts of these molecules. Traditional fermentation methods can only produce minute amounts of the lantibiotic.

In June 2012, we entered into the Lantibiotic Exclusive Channel Collaboration agreement ("Lantibiotic ECC") with Precigen for the development and commercialization of the native strain of MU1140 and related homologs using Precigen's advanced transgene and cell engineering platforms. Through our work with Precigen, we have been able to produce a significant increase in the fermentation titer of MU1140 compared to standard fermentation methods and have discovered a new purification process for MU1140. Our work with Precigen generated a substantial number of homologs of MU1140. In January Precigen consummated a reorganization of its ongoing API fermentation operations and assets into EGI which at the time was an affiliate of Precigen. In connection with the reorganization, Precigen assigned the Lantibiotic ECC and related stock issuance agreements to EGI. Following such reorganization, Precigen divested certain of its assets to TS Biotechnology Holdings, LLC which included EGI and shares of Oragenics securities held by Precigen. As a result of such change by Precigen we expect to continue our research and development and collaboration efforts with EGI to develop potential derivatives of the MU1140 molecule using genetically modified bacteria.

In our pre-clinical studies to support a potential IND filing with the FDA, we tested a total of six homologs of MU1140 for certain compound characteristics, including but not limited to: drug activity (based on minimum inhibitory concentration or "MIC") equal or better than "standard of care" drugs against certain drug-resistant bacteria, safety, toxicity, stability, and manufacturability. An animal study specifically evaluated homolog efficacy in relation to survival, measurable amounts of Clostridium difficile ("C. diff") colony forming units, and toxin levels. Three homologs demonstrated promising results with one homolog, OG253 achieving a 100% survival rate throughout the entire study in contrast to an approximately 30% survival rate for the vancomycin positive control.

Based on these early results, we selected a lead candidate, OG253, for which we had a pre-IND meeting with the FDA in November of 2015 regarding the pursuit of an IND for OG253. Following additional research and development on second generation lantibiotics, in August of 2016, we opted to select a second generation lantibiotic, OG716, for treatment of C. diff as our new lead candidate. OG716 is a new, orally-active homolog, that has exhibited positive results in an animal model for potential treatment of C. diff. Generated from our MU1140 platform, this new lantibiotic showed promising efficacy in reducing clinically relevant C. diff infections as measured by increased animal survival and decreased relapse as well as reduced production of toxins A & B and C. diff spores.

The timing of the filing of an IND regarding OG716 is subject to our having sufficient available human, material and financing capital, which includes research subjects, both animal and human, given all of our anticipated needs and expected requirements in connection with our ongoing research and development initiatives. We will continue to advance the OG716 program to the IND filing based on the availability of both human and financial capital. Based upon the current funding available we will continue to conduct some of the requisite studies. While we commenced certain of these studies at the end of 2019, we expect to focus on efficient and cost-effective improvements in the manufacturing process of the product as we move to complete the pre-clinical studies required to support our first in man Phase 1 clinical study.

Product Candidates.

Through our wholly-owned subsidiary, Noachis Terra, we intend to begin the research and development stage for our new TerraCoV2 vaccine product candidate. We hold a nonexclusive, worldwide intellectual property license agreement for certain research, patent applications and biological materials relating to the use of pre-fusion coronavirus spike proteins for the development and commercialization of a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2.

Additionally, we are currently working with Eleszto Genetika, Inc. (as an assignee of Precigen) to use its technology to develop lantibiotics. We seek to protect our product candidates through patents and patent applications pursuant to the terms of our license agreements.







        Product/Candidate   Description                        Application        Status
        TerraCoV2           Vaccine candidate (plasmid +       Broad,             Pre-clinical
                            adjuvant) to provide lifetime      community-based
                            immunity from SARS-CoV-2           vaccine immunity
                                                               and/or
                                                               therapeutic
                                                               applications(?)
                                                               against
                                                               SARS-CoV-2
        OG716               A homolog of MU1140: Member of     Clostridium        Nonclinical
                            lantibiotic class of antibiotics   difficile          testing
                                                               associated
                                                               diarrhea
        


Recent Developments

Feedback From U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA"). In October 2020, the Company announced the receipt of feedback to its Type B Pre-IND Meeting Request from the FDA. The response indicated that the FDA is in broad agreement with the Company's planned pre-clinical approach to support clinical development of its SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, Terra CoV-2. The Company anticipates filing the IND in the second quarter of 2021 and immediately upon the receipt of approval from the FDA, commencing the Phase 1 clinical study.

Funding Update From Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority ("BARDA"). In September of 2020 the Company was informed of BARDA's determination not to enter into negotiation with the Company. While BARDA noted the Company's submission aligned with its mission, a combination of factors, including availability of funds, precluded the agency from entering into negotiations at that time.

Warrant Exercises. Between July 1, 2020 and September 30, 2020, 760,000 of our previously reported remaining outstanding warrants were exercised at an exercise price of $1.00 per share issued in connection with our July 2018 public offering (the "2018 Warrants") and 4,882,114 warrants of our previously reported outstanding warrants to acquire shares of Common Stock at an exercise price of $0.90 per share issued in connection with our March 2019 public offering (the "2019 Warrants"), were exercised (the "Warrant Exercises"). The Warrant Exercises provided aggregate gross proceeds to us of $5,153,902.

Additional Consideration Payment - NTI Acquisition. In connection with our acquisition of NTI we are obligated to pay additional consideration to NTI's former sole stockholder determined and based upon the exercise of our 2018 Warrants and 2019 Warrants. As a result of Warrant Exercises, we paid $1,220,781 in additional consideration to NTI's former sole stockholder.

Financial Overview

Impact of the Novel Coronavirus. The current COVID-19 pandemic has presented a substantial public health and economic challenge around the world and is affecting our employees, development partners, communities and business operations, as the U.S. and global economies and financial markets. The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will directly or indirectly impact our business, results of operations and financial condition will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including new information or trends that may emerge concerning COVID-19, the actions taken to contain it or treat its impact, and the impact on local, regional, national and international markets.

Our management has closely monitored the impact of COVID-19 on our business operations. Due to stay at home orders in the United States, we have instituted a work-from-home plan for our employees. Additionally, as noted below, on May 5, 2020, the Company received loan proceeds in the amount of $132,088 under the Paycheck Protection Program (the "PPP"), pursuant to the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act ("CARES Act"). We have no plans to furlough employees at this time. However, the Company is dependent on its workforce to deliver and advance its research. While expected to be temporary, prolonged workforce disruptions may negatively impact future operations in fiscal year 2020 and the Company's overall liquidity.

To date, we and our development partners, have been able to conduct ordinary operations at or near normal levels and do not currently anticipate any interruptions for the foreseeable future. However, there could be additional repercussions for our operations, particularly for the initial development of our TerraCov2 product candidate, including but not limited to, the sourcing of materials for product candidates, manufacture of supplies for preclinical and/or clinical studies, delays in clinical operations, which may include the availability or the continued availability of patients for trials due to such things as quarantines, conduct of patient monitoring and clinical trial data retrieval at investigational study sites. The continuation of the pandemic could adversely affect our planned clinical trial operations, including our ability to conduct the trials on the expected timelines and recruit and retain patients and principal investigators and site staff who, as healthcare providers, may have heightened exposure to COVID-19 if their geography is impacted by the pandemic. Further, the COVID-19 pandemic could result in delays in our clinical trials due to prioritization of hospital resources toward the pandemic, restrictions in travel, potential unwillingness of patients to enroll in trials at this time, or the inability of patients to comply with clinical trial protocols if quarantines or travel restrictions impede patient movement or interrupt healthcare services. In addition, we rely on independent clinical investigators, contract research organizations and other third-party service providers to assist us in managing, monitoring and otherwise carrying out our preclinical studies and clinical trials, and the pandemic may affect their ability to devote sufficient time and resources to our programs or to travel to sites to perform work for us.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development consist of expenses incurred in connection with the discovery and development of our product candidates. These expenses consist primarily of employee-related expenses, which include salaries and benefits and attending science conferences; expenses incurred under our license agreements with third parties and under other agreements with contract research organizations, investigative sites and consultants that conduct our clinical trials and a substantial portion of our nonclinical studies; the cost of acquiring and manufacturing clinical trial materials; facilities, depreciation and other allocated expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities and equipment, and depreciation of fixed assets; license fees, for and milestone payments related to, in-licensed products and technology; stock-based compensation expense; and costs associated with nonclinical activities and regulatory approvals. We expense research and development costs as incurred.

Our research and development expenses can be divided into (i) clinical research, and (ii) nonclinical research and development activities and (iii) manufacturing process development and analytical testing procedure development. Clinical research costs consist of clinical trials, manufacturing services, regulatory activities and related personnel costs, and other costs such as rent, utilities, depreciation and stock-based compensation. Nonclinical research and development costs consist of our research activities, nonclinical studies, related personnel costs and laboratory supplies, and other costs such as rent, utilities, depreciation and stock-based compensation and research expenses we incur associated with the development of our product candidates. While we are currently focused on advancing our product development programs, our future research and development expenses will depend on the clinical success of our product candidates, as well as ongoing assessments of each product candidate's commercial potential. In addition, we cannot forecast with any degree of certainty which product candidates may be subject to future collaborations, when such arrangements will be secured, if at all, and to what degree such arrangements would affect our development plans, research expenses and capital requirements.

Our research and development expenses were $18,755,013 and $9,360,520 for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Our current product development strategy contemplates an expected increase in our research and development expenses in the future as we continue the advancement of our product development programs for our vaccine and lantibiotic product candidates, with greater near term emphasis on our vaccine product candidate. The lengthy process of completing clinical trials; seeking regulatory approval for our product candidates; and expanding the potential claims we are able to make, requires expenditure of substantial resources. Any failure or delay in completing clinical trials, or in obtaining regulatory approvals, could cause a delay in generating product revenues and cause our research and development expenses to increase and, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our operations. Our current product candidates are not expected to be commercially available until we are able to obtain regulatory approval from the FDA.

Our plan is to budget and manage expenditures in research and development such that they are undertaken in a cost-effective manner yet still advance the research and development efforts. While we have some control under our Lantibiotic ECC and NIH license as to the planning and timing of our research and development and therefore the timing of when expenditures may be incurred for various phases of agreed upon projects, actual expenditures can vary from period to period. Subject to available capital, we expect overall research and development expenses to increase as a result of our vaccine product candidate and as our financial resources permit. Our research and development projects are currently expected to be taken to the point where they can be licensed or partnered with larger pharmaceutical companies.

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses consist principally of salaries and related costs for personnel in executive, finance, and administrative functions. Other general and administrative expenses include facility costs not otherwise included in research and development expenses, patent filing, and professional fees for legal, consulting, auditing and tax services.

We anticipate that our general and administrative expenses to increase for, among others, the following reasons:

to support our research and development activities, which, subject to available ? capital, we expect to expand as we continue the development of our product candidates;

? the efforts we undertake from, time to time, to raise additional capital; and

the increased payroll, and stock-based compensation, expanded infrastructure ? and higher consulting, legal, accounting and investor relations costs associated with being a public company.

Other Income (Expense)

Other income (expense) includes local business taxes, as well as interest income and expense. Interest income consists of interest earned on our cash and cash equivalents, and interest earned on the stock subscription receivable. The primary objective of our investment policy is capital preservation. Interest expense consists primarily of interest and costs associated with our indebtedness.

Income Taxes

As of December 31, 2019, we have net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $117,963,000 to offset future federal and state income taxes. Federal and state tax net operating loss carryforwards generated prior to December 31, 2017 will expire through 2037. Federal tax net operating loss carryforwards generated subsequent to December 31, 2017, do not expire but are subject to a limitation of 80% of federal taxable income for tax years beginning after December 21, 2020. For tax years beginning before 2021 and after December 31, 2017, the federal taxable income limitation has been removed under the CARES Act. We also have research and development tax credit carryforwards of approximately $2,805,000 as of December 31, 2019, to offset future federal and state income taxes. Our net operating loss and research and development tax credit carryforwards will expire if not used by 2039 and 2029, respectively.

Utilization of net operating loss carryforwards and research and development credit carryforwards may be subject to a substantial annual limitation due to ownership change limitations that may have occurred or, could occur in the future in accordance with Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 ("IRC

Nov 10, 2020

COMTEX_374249264/2041/2020-11-10T16:03:26

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