(EDGAR Online via COMTEX) -- Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
You should read the following discussion and analysis together with "Selected Financial Data" in Part II, Item 6 and our consolidated financial statements and related notes in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Annual Report, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should review the "Risk Factors" section of this Annual Report for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.
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We are a medical technology company focused on the development and commercialization of a long-term, implantable continuous glucose monitoring, or CGM, system to improve the lives of people with diabetes by enhancing their ability to manage their disease with relative ease and accuracy. Our Eversense and Eversense XL CGM systems are designed to continually and accurately measure glucose levels in people with diabetes via an under-the-skin sensor, a removable and rechargeable smart transmitter, and a convenient app for real-time diabetes monitoring and management for a period of up to 90 and 180 days, respectively, as compared to seven to 14 days for non-implantable CGM systems. The original Eversense CGM system received a CE mark in June 2016, which marked the first approval for the product to be sold within the European Economic Area. Subsequently, the extended life Eversense XL CGM system received its CE mark in September 2017 and is currently available in select markets in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, or EMEA. In June 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, approved the Eversense CGM system and it is currently available throughout the United States. In June 2019, we received FDA approval for the non-adjunctive indication (dosing claim) for the Eversense system. With this approval and the availability of a new app in December 2019, the Eversense system can now be used as a therapeutic CGM in the United States to replace fingerstick blood glucose measurement to make treatment decisions, including insulin dosing.
Our net revenues are derived from sales of the Eversense system which is sold in two separate kits: the disposable Eversense Sensor Pack which includes the sensor, insertion tool, and adhesive patches, and the durable Eversense Smart Transmitter Pack which includes the transmitter and charger.
We sell directly to our network of distributors and strategic fulfillment partners, who provide the Eversense system to healthcare providers and patients through a prescribed request and invoice insurance payors for reimbursement. Sales of the Eversense system are widely dependent on the ability of patients to obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors or government agencies. We leverage and target regions where we have coverage decisions for patient device use and provider insertion and removal procedure payment. During 2020, we received positive payor coverage decisions from Cigna Corporation, who has more than 17 million medical customers and offers a Medicare Advantage plan in 17 states and Washington, DC, Blue Cross and Blue Shield plans, and announced local coverage determinations, or LCD, proposals for implantable therapeutic CGMs such as Eversense by all the Medicare Administrative Contractors to enable Eversense to be used by Medicare beneficiaries as a Part B physician service. We continue to see momentum of broad national payor acceptance, including on August 3, 2020, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services, or CMS, released its Calendar Year 2021 Medicare Physician Fee Schedule Proposed Rule that announces proposed policy changes for Medicare payments, including the proposed establishment of national payment amounts for the three CPT� Category III codes describing the insertion (CPT 0446T), removal (0447T), and removal and insertion (0048T) of an implantable interstitial glucose sensor, which describes our Eversense CGM systems, as a medical benefit, rather than as part of the Durable Medical Equipment channel that includes other CGMs.
We are in the early commercialization stages of the Eversense brand and are focused on driving awareness of our CGM system amongst intensively managed patients and their healthcare providers. In both the United States and our overseas markets, we entered into a strategic partnerships and distribution agreements that allow third party collaborators with direct sales forces and established distribution systems to market and promote Senseonics CGM systems, including Eversense, Eversense XL and future generation products.
United States Development and Commercialization of Eversense
In 2016, we completed our PRECISE II pivotal clinical trial in the United States. This trial, which was fully enrolled with 90 subjects, was conducted at eight sites in the United States. In the trial, we measured the accuracy of Eversense measurements through 90 days after insertion. We also assessed safety through 90 days after insertion or through sensor removal. In the trial, we observed a mean absolute relative difference, or MARD, of 8.5% utilizing two calibration points for Eversense across the 40-400 mg/dL range when compared to YSI blood reference values during the 90-day continuous wear period. Based on the data from this trial, in October 2016 we submitted a pre-market approval, or PMA, application to the FDA to market Eversense in the United States for 90-day use. On June 21, 2018, we received PMA approval from the FDA for the Eversense system. In July 2018, we began distributing the Eversense system
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directly in the United States through our own direct sales and marketing organization. We have received Category III CPT codes for the insertion and removal of the Eversense sensor.
In December 2018, we initiated the PROMISE pivotal clinical trial to evaluate the safety and accuracy of Eversense for a period of up to 180 days in the United States. In September 30, 2019, we completed enrollment of the PROMISE trial. In the trial, we observed performance matching that of the current Eversense 90-day product available in the United States, with a mean absolute relative difference, or MARD, of 8.5%-9.6%. This result was achieved with reduced calibration, down to one per day, while also doubling the sensor life to 180 days. Following the results of the PROMISE trial, on September 30, 2020, a Premarket Approval, or PMA, supplement application to extend the wearable life of the Eversense CGM System to 180 days was submitted to the FDA.
In March 2019, we launched a patient access program, the Eversense Bridge Program, to assist those patients who do not have insurance coverage for Eversense, or whose insurance is denied or insufficient. Pursuant to this program, we provided financial assistance to eligible patients purchasing Eversense, which may have been substantial depending on a patient's insurance coverage. We also assisted patients in their appeal of adverse coverage decisions made by insurance providers. In December 2020, we terminated the Eversense Bridge Program. We expect our partner Ascensia to implement a patient assistance program and related programs as part of its commercialization efforts. The lack of a patient assistance program, or a program's design being ineffective, could adversely impact the sales of Eversense and, consequently our net revenues. In addition, we may not be able to recognize a substantial portion of the revenue related to Eversense insertions for the patients participating in these access programs, or previously the Bridge Program. The amount of time required to obtain favorable coverage and reimbursement decisions, including navigating the appeals process with third-party payors, is uncertain, and we may see increased product utilization without corresponding recognized revenue. Our operating results may be adversely impacted if we are unable to obtain successful appeals or favorable coverage decisions by insurance providers, or if there are not effective patient access programs in place.
In June 2019, we received FDA approval for the non-adjunctive indication (dosing claim) for the Eversense system and launched with an updated app in December 2019. With this approval, the Eversense system can be used as a therapeutic CGM to replace fingerstick blood glucose measurement for treatment decisions, including insulin dosing.
On February 26, 2020, we announced that the FDA approved a subgroup of PROMISE trial participants to continue for a total of 365 days to gather feasibility data on the safety and accuracy of a 365-day sensor. This sub-set of 30 participants were left undisturbed for 365 days with the goal of measuring accuracy and longevity over the full 365 days. Following information gathered from this sub-set and continued development efforts, and pending developments at the FDA relating to the ongoing the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, in the second half of 2021 we plan to seek Investigational Device Exemption, or IDE, from the FDA to explore the 365-day sensor in a clinical trial. If the IDE is approved in a timely manner, we would target to begin enrollment of a clinical trial, in which we intend to include a pediatric population, in the first half of 2022.
In April 2020, we announced that we received regulatory approval in Europe such that the Eversense XL is no longer contraindicated for MRI, which means the sensor does not need to be removed from under the skin during MRI scanning. We had previously obtained this indication for Eversense in the United States in 2019. This MRI approval is a first for the CGM category, as all other sensors are required to be removed during an MRI scan.
On August 9, 2020, we entered into a collaboration and commercialization agreement with Ascensia pursuant to which we granted Ascensia the exclusive right to distribute our 90-day Eversense continuous glucose monitoring system and our 180-day Eversense continuous glucose monitoring system worldwide for people with diabetes, with the following initial exceptions: (i) until January 31, 2021, the territory did not include countries covered by our then existing distribution agreement with Roche Diagnostics International AG and Roche Diabetes Care GmbH, which are the Europe, Middle East and Asia, excluding Scandinavia and Israel, and 17 additional countries, including Brazil, Russia, India and China, as well as select markets in the Asia Pacific and Latin American regions; (ii) until September 13, 2021, the territory does not include countries covered by our current distribution agreement with Rubin Medical, which are Sweden, Norway and Denmark; and (iii) until May 31, 2022, the territory does not include Israel. Pursuant to the Commercialization Agreement, in the United States, Ascensia began providing sales support for the 90-day Eversense
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product on October 1, 2020 and the parties have been planning and making arrangements for Ascensia to ramp up sales activities and more fully assume commercial responsibilities in the second quarter of 2021. The Eversense 180-day product is planned to be marketed upon receipt of marketing approval from the FDA. In Germany, Italy and Switzerland, Spain, Poland and the Netherlands, Ascensia assumed commercial responsibilities for Eversense XL beginning on February 1, 2021. For Sweden and Norway, Ascensia will assume commercial responsibilities later this year. Ascensia is entitled to receive a portion of net revenue at specified tiered percentages ranging from the mid-teens to the mid-forty's based on levels of global net revenues. Ascensia is obligated to achieve specified minimum annual revenue targets and meet specified levels of sales and marketing spend in order to maintain its exclusive distribution rights. Ascensia purchases Eversense and Eversense XL from us at negotiated prices. We remain responsible for product development and manufacturing, including regulatory submissions, approvals and registrations and second level customer support, and Ascensia is responsible for sales, marketing, market access, patient and provider onboarding and first level customer support. We have agreed to establish a joint alliance committee and joint marketing committee, each with equal representation from each party, in order to collaborate.
European Commercialization of Eversense
In September 2017, we received the CE mark for Eversense XL, which is indicated for a sensor life of up to 180 days. Eversense XL began commercialization in Europe in the fourth quarter of 2017. All such commercialization and marketing activities remain subject to applicable government approvals.
In May 2016, we entered into a distribution agreement with Roche Diagnostics International AG and Roche Diabetes Care GmbH, together referred to as Roche. Pursuant to the agreement, as amended, we have granted Roche the exclusive right to market, sell and distribute Eversense in the EMEA, excluding Scandinavia and Israel. In addition, Roche has exclusive distribution rights in 17 additional countries, including Brazil, Russia, India and China, as well as select markets in the Asia Pacific and Latin American regions. Roche is obligated to purchase from us specified minimum volumes of Eversense XL CGM components at pre-determined prices. On December 12, 2019, we further amended the distribution agreement to lower minimum volumes for 2020 and increase pricing for the remaining period of the contract. On November 30, 2020 we entered into a final amendment and settlement agreement with Roche to facilitate the transition of distribution to Ascensia as sales conclude on January 31, 2021, including final purchases, and transition support activities. The distribution rights under the agreement expired January 31, 2021, subject to Roche providing certain transition and wind-down services for approximately six months in markets where Ascensia is not initiating distribution.
On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization, or the WHO, announced a global health emergency because of a new strain of coronavirus, or COVID-19, and the risks to the international community as the virus spreads globally. On March 11, 2020, the WHO classified the COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic, based on the rapid increase in exposure globally. In response to the pandemic, many states and jurisdictions have issued stay-at-home orders and other measures aimed at slowing the spread of the coronavirus. The state of Maryland, where we are headquartered, has been affected by COVID-19. The Governor of Maryland issued an order closing all non-essential businesses, which took effect on March 23, 2020. Although the state of Maryland is gradually undergoing a phased reopening plan, substantially all of our workforce is still working from home either all or substantially all of the time. Additionally, because our sensor requires an in-clinic procedure, we saw a reduction in access to clinics and sensor insertions during the initial outbreak.
During the latter half of 2020, several new order requests from our distributors led to adjustments to concession allowances previously provided to some of our customers in the United States to reflect actual product usage. While these trends are promising, insertion volumes are still below pre-COVID-19 levels. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic infection rates in the United States are still high, vaccine distribution has only just begun, and it is difficult to predict the longevity and severity COVID-19 will have on our business.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic's disruption to our operations, suppliers, employees, and the healthcare community in which we sell to and support, and our limited cash resources, in March 2020, we made significant
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reductions in our cost structure and operations to improve cash flow and generate future expenditure savings to ensure the long-term success of Eversense. Specifically, in the first quarter of 2020, we temporarily suspended commercial sales and marketing of the Eversense CGM System in the United States to new patients to solely focus our resources on supporting existing users, including ensuring broader insurance coverage for Eversense, and the development and regulatory submission of our new 180-day Eversense product in the United States. In connection with these actions, on March 26, 2020, we reduced our workforce by approximately 60%, over half of which were sales personnel.
Critical Accounting Policies and Use of Estimates
The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States.
The preparation of our consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and equity and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. These estimates, particularly estimates relating to accounting for variable consideration related to revenue, warranty obligations, inventory obsolescence and embedded derivatives, have a material impact on our financial statements and are discussed in detail throughout our analysis of the results of operations discussed below.
We base our estimates on historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets, liabilities and equity that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results and outcomes could differ from these estimates and assumptions.
We generate product revenue from sales of the Eversense system and related components and supplies at a fixed price to third-party distributors in the European Union and to a network of strategic fulfillment partners in the United States, or collectively, Customers, who then resell the products to health care providers and patients. We are paid for our sales directly to the Customers, regardless of whether or not the Customers resell the products to health care providers and patients. Under the terms of our distribution agreement with Roche, Roche was contractually obligated to make certain minimum purchases of Eversense systems from us and, accordingly, the revenue we recognize for any given period is not necessarily indicative of the level of sales to end users for that, or any other, period.
Revenue from product sales is recognized at a point in time when the Customers obtain control of our product based upon the delivery terms as defined in the contract at an amount that reflects the consideration which we expect to receive in exchange for the product. Contracts with our distributors contain performance obligations, mostly for the supply of goods, and is typically satisfied upon transfer of control of the product.
We recognize revenue only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur in a future period. Our contracts may contain some form of variable consideration such as prompt-pay discounts or tier-volume price discounts. Variable consideration, including reimbursements paid by us to our Customers in accordance with the Eversense Bridge Program initiated in March 2019 and to a lesser extent, other discounts, is treated as a reduction in revenue when the product sale is recognized. Depending on the variable consideration, we develop estimates for the expected value based on the terms of the agreements, historical data, third-party payor mix, reimbursement rates, and market conditions. In connection with the Eversense Bridge Program, we reimburse participating Customers an amount up to a fixed maximum for the difference in the cost of the Eversense System and what they collect from insurance payors and the patient's fee of $99. Our Customers are responsible for confirming patient insurance coverage, obtaining pre-authorizations, determining eligibility, and continuously provide us with data regarding which patient orders are under the program and which are not. We use this data, along with actual reimbursements that have been validated to patient claims, to support our expected reimbursement estimates. Estimated reimbursement payments for product shipped to our Customers but not provided to a patient within the same reporting period are recorded within accrued expenses and other current liabilities in our accompanying consolidated balance sheets. The Eversense Bridge Program concluded on December 31, 2020, and the remaining estimated liability is likely not material.
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We provide a one-year warranty on our smart transmitters to our customers. We may also replace Eversense system components that do not function in accordance with the product specifications. Estimated replacement costs are recorded at the time of shipment as a charge to cost of sales in the consolidated statement of operations and are developed by analyzing product performance data and historical replacement experience, including comparing actual return management authorizations to revenues.
Inventory and Obsolescence
Inventory is valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined using the standard cost method that approximates first in, first out. We record an adjustment to reduce the value of inventory for items that are potentially obsolete, where the standard costs require adjustment to the net realizable value, and are in excess of future demand taking into consideration the product shelf life. Our sensor manufacturing process can span several months, involves various contract manufacturers and includes raw components with long lead times, often resulting in significant work-in-progress inventory. However, expiry does not commence until the chemistry is applied to the sensor. We are able to isolate pre-chemistry sensor inventory in progress from post-chemistry sensor inventory and finished goods to assess against demand forecasts and customer dating requirements for potential excess or obsolete inventory. Our estimates are based on information known at the time and include factors such as anticipated future usage and sales, potential for external unfavorable conditions such as import holds or quality issues, and planned product upgrades. However, if actual product quality or conditions differ from our assumptions, additional inventory adjustments that would increase cost of sales could be required.
Derivative Financial Instruments
In connection with our issuance of the convertible senior subordinated notes due 2023, or the 2023 Notes in January 2018, we bifurcated the embedded conversion option, along with the interest make-whole provision and make-whole fundamental change provision, and recorded the embedded conversion option as a derivative liability in our consolidated balance sheets in accordance with ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging.
In July 2019, we issued $82.0 million in aggregate principal amount of convertible senior subordinated notes due 2025, or the 2025 Notes. In connection with the 2025 Notes, we bifurcated the embedded conversion option along with the fundamental change make-whole provision and the cash settled fundamental make-whole shares provision, and recorded the fair value of these embedded features as a derivative liability in our consolidated balance sheets in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging.
On April 21, 2020, we entered into the Highbridge Loan Agreement, in which we borrowed an aggregate principal amount of $15.0 million through the issuance and sale of the First Lien Notes and issued 1,500,000 shares of our common stock to the Lenders as a commitment fee. The First Lien Notes also contained redemption features that were evaluated for bifurcation as separate derivative instruments including the permitted prepayment put option, the mandatory accelerated redemption and the mandatory redemption and reinvestment upon an asset sale. We recorded the fair value of the embedded features in the amount of $1.0 million as a debt premium and derivative asset in our consolidated balance sheets in accordance with ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging. The derivative was adjusted to fair value at each reporting period, with the change recorded in change in fair value of derivatives that is a component of other income (expense) in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. On August 14, 2020, we prepaid the First Lien Notes in full, including the discounted prepayment premium, in the amount of approximately $17.6 million and recognized a loss on extinguishment in the amount of $0.7 million.
On April 21, 2020, we entered into a Note Purchase and Exchange Agreement with certain funds managed by Highbridge providing for the exchange (the "Exchange") of $24.0 million aggregate principal amount of our outstanding 2025 Notes for
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the Second Lien Notes also permit voluntary conversion at the option of the holder as described above. We recorded the fair value of these embedded features in the amount of $1.9 million as a derivative asset in our consolidated balance sheets in accordance with ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging. The derivative is adjusted to fair value at each reporting period, with the change in the fair value recorded in change in fair value of derivatives that is a component of other income (expense) in our consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss. During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, Highbridge elected to convert the full $15.7 million of outstanding principal on the Second Lien Notes.
In August 2020, we issued $35.0 million in aggregate principal amount of convertible senior secured notes due 2024, or the PHC Notes. The Note Purchase Agreement also contained several provisions requiring bifurcation as a separate derivative liability including an embedded conversion feature, mandatory prepayment upon event of default that constitutes a breach of the minimum revenue financial covenant, optional redemption upon an event of default, change in interest rate after PMA approval and default interest upon an event of default. We recorded the fair value of the embedded features as a derivative liability in our consolidated balance sheets in accordance with ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging.
The derivative instruments are remeasured at the end of each reporting period with changes in fair value recorded in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss in other income (expense) as a change in fair value of the derivative liability. The fair value assessment incorporates management's assumptions for probabilities of conversion occurrence through maturity, stock price, volatility, risky bond rate, and trade data when available. We engage a third-party valuation specialist to perform the valuation using the binomial option pricing model.
Results of Operations
Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 The following table sets forth our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. Year Ended . . .
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